The favorable effect of fish oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) is controversial. The relationship between the serum concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and the incidence of AF is unclear; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to elucidate this relationship. We evaluated the serum concentrations of n-3 PUFAs in 110 patients with AF, 46 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and no AF, and 36 healthy volunteers. Thirty-six patients had a history of IHD (IHD-AF group) and 74 did not (L-AF group). The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels in the L-AF group were higher than those in the IHD-AF and control groups (117 ± 64, 76 ± 30, and 68 ± 23 μg/ml, respectively); the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels showed the same pattern (170 ± 50, 127 ± 27, and 126 ± 35 μg/ml, respectively). In both the L-AF and IHD-AF groups, the EPA levels in patients with persistent and permanent AF were higher than those in patients with paroxysmal AF (L-AF 131 ± 74 vs. 105 ± 51 μg/ml; IHD-AF 82 ± 28 vs 70 ± 33 μg/ml). Multivariate analysis showed that cases of AF were associated with higher levels of EPA but not DHA. In this Japanese population study, the EPA and DHA levels in patients with L-AF were higher than those in normal subjects. In particular, the EPA level was associated with the incidence of AF. These findings suggest that an excess of EPA might be a precipitating factor of AF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a member of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid family, prevents cardiovascular disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation, which promotes atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among EPA, CRP, and the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD), which is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. A cross-sectional study was performed on 238 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood EPA and CRP levels and ankle-brachial pressure indices were measured. Cut-off values for plasma EPA levels and serum CRP levels were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Patients with ABIs ≤0.9 were defined as having PAD. EPA levels were significantly lower and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with PAD than in those without [48 (26-77) vs. 58 (41-83) μg/ml, p = 0.026 and 3.3 (0.64-14.0) vs. 0.70 (0.32, 2.4) mg/l, p = 0.004]. Multivariate analysis for PAD revealed that high CRP levels and low EPA levels were significant and independent predictors of PAD [odds ratio 3.1 (95 % CI 1.4-6.9), p = 0.006 and odds ratio 4.9 (95 % CI 1.5-9.7), p = 0.004]. Furthermore, to predict PAD, adding high CRP levels and low EPA levels to the established risk factors significantly improved the area under the ROC curves, from 0.66 to 0.78, of the PAD prediction model (p = 0.004). A significant relationship among EPA, CRP, and PAD was confirmed in patients with CAD.
Heart and Vessels 06/2013; 29(4). DOI:10.1007/s00380-013-0384-4 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recommendations to consume fish for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), along with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status for long chain omega-3 fatty acids, may have had the unanticipated consequence of encouraging long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid [(eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] supplementation and fortification practices. While there is evidence supporting a protective role for EPA/DHA supplementation in reducing sudden cardiac events, the safety and efficacy of supplementation with LCω-3PUFA in the context of other disease outcomes is unclear. Recent studies of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in animal models of infectious disease demonstrate that LCω-3PUFA intake dampens immunity and alters pathogen clearance and can result in reduced survival. The same physiological properties of EPA/DHA that are responsible for the amelioration of inflammation associated with chronic cardiovascular pathology or autoimmune states, may impair pathogen clearance during acute infections by decreasing host resistance or interfere with tumor surveillance resulting in adverse health outcomes. Recent observations that high serum LCω-3PUFA levels are associated with higher risk of prostate cancer and atrial fibrillation raise concern for adverse outcomes. Given the widespread use of supplements and fortification of common food items with LCω-3PUFA, this review focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of the dietary LCω-3PUFAs, EPA and DHA, the mechanistic basis for potential negative health outcomes, and calls for biomarker development and validation as rational first steps towards setting recommended dietary intake levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of fish oil supplementation on postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following cardiac surgery have produced mixed results. In this study, we examined relationships between levels of red blood cell (RBC) n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and the incidence of POAF.
We used combined data (n=355) from RCTs conducted in Australia and Iceland. The primary end point was defined as POAF lasting >10 min in the first 6 days following surgery. The odds ratios (ORs) for POAF were compared between quintiles of preoperative RBC n-3 LC-PUFA levels by multivariable logistic regression.
Subjects with RBC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the fourth quintile, comprising a RBC DHA range of 7.0-7.9%, had the lowest incidence of POAF. Subjects in the lowest and highest quintiles had significantly higher risk of developing POAF compared with those in the fourth quintile (OR=2.36: 95% CI; 1.07-5.24 and OR=2.45: 95% CI; 1.16-5.17, respectively). There was no association between RBC eicosapentaenoic acid levels and POAF incidence.
The results suggest a 'U-shaped' relationship between RBC DHA levels and POAF incidence. The possibility of increased risk of POAF at high levels of DHA suggests an upper limit for n-3 LC-PUFAs in certain conditions.
European journal of clinical nutrition 10/2013; 68(1). DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2013.215 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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