High concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with the development of atrial fibrillation in the Japanese population.
ABSTRACT The favorable effect of fish oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) is controversial. The relationship between the serum concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and the incidence of AF is unclear; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to elucidate this relationship. We evaluated the serum concentrations of n-3 PUFAs in 110 patients with AF, 46 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and no AF, and 36 healthy volunteers. Thirty-six patients had a history of IHD (IHD-AF group) and 74 did not (L-AF group). The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels in the L-AF group were higher than those in the IHD-AF and control groups (117 ± 64, 76 ± 30, and 68 ± 23 μg/ml, respectively); the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels showed the same pattern (170 ± 50, 127 ± 27, and 126 ± 35 μg/ml, respectively). In both the L-AF and IHD-AF groups, the EPA levels in patients with persistent and permanent AF were higher than those in patients with paroxysmal AF (L-AF 131 ± 74 vs. 105 ± 51 μg/ml; IHD-AF 82 ± 28 vs 70 ± 33 μg/ml). Multivariate analysis showed that cases of AF were associated with higher levels of EPA but not DHA. In this Japanese population study, the EPA and DHA levels in patients with L-AF were higher than those in normal subjects. In particular, the EPA level was associated with the incidence of AF. These findings suggest that an excess of EPA might be a precipitating factor of AF.
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ABSTRACT: Here, we investigate whether a diet rich in fish oil can lead to the development of hepatic alterations associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To achieve this goal, we provided, for 8 weeks, four different diets to 3-month-old C57BL/6 mice: (a) standard-chow diet (SC; 40 g soybean oil/kg diet, 10 % of the total energy content from lipids), (b) fish oil diet (FO; 4 g soybean oil and 36 g fish oil/kg diet, 10 % of the total energy content from lipids), (c) high-fat diet (HF; 40 g soybean oil and 238 g lard/kg diet, 50 % of the total energy content from lipids), and (d) high-fish oil diet (HFO; 40 g soybean oil and 238 g fish oil/kg diet, 50 % of the total energy content from lipids). Biochemical analyses, stereology, western-blotting and RT-qPCR were used. In the HF group, we found evidence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and liver damage, along with hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic insulin resistance, and steatosis. On the other hand, the HFO group did not present these alterations and remained similar to the controls. The changes observed in the animals fed the HF diet were accompanied by an increase in hepatic lipogenesis and a decrease in beta-oxidation; meanwhile, in the HFO group, the opposite results were found, that is, reduced lipogenesis and elevated beta-oxidation, were most likely responsible for the prevention of deleterious hepatic alterations and liver damage. In conclusion, a diet rich in fish oil has beneficial effects on hepatic insulin resistance, lipogenesis and beta-oxidation and prevents hepatic tissue from liver damage and NAFLD.Lipids 03/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) with higher intakes of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), but the results have been inconsistent. The aim was to investigate the association between consumption of marine n-3 PUFA and development of AF.METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 57 053 Danish participants 50-64 years of age were enrolled in the Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort Study between 1993 and 1997. Dietary intake of fish and marine n-3 PUFA was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. In total, 3345 incident cases of AF occurred over 13.6 years. Multivariate Cox regression analyses (3284 cases and 55 246 participants) using cubic splines showed a U-shaped association between consumption of marine n-3 PUFA and risk of incident AF, with the lowest risk of AF at a moderate intake of 0.63 g/day. For quintiles of marine n-3 PUFA intake, a 13% statistically significant lower risk of AF was seen in the middle vs. lowest quintile: Q1 reference, Q2 HR 0.92 (95% CI 0.82-1.03), Q3 HR 0.87 (95% CI 0.78-0.98), Q4 HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.86-1.08), and Q5 HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.93-1.18). Intake of total fish, fatty fish, and the individual n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid also showed U-shaped associations with incident AF.CONCLUSION: We found a U-shaped association between consumption of marine n-3 PUFA and risk of incident AF, with the lowest risk close to the median intake of total marine n-3 PUFA (0.63 g/day).Europace 02/2014; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recommendations to consume fish for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), along with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status for long chain omega-3 fatty acids, may have had the unanticipated consequence of encouraging long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid [(eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] supplementation and fortification practices. While there is evidence supporting a protective role for EPA/DHA supplementation in reducing sudden cardiac events, the safety and efficacy of supplementation with LCω-3PUFA in the context of other disease outcomes is unclear. Recent studies of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in animal models of infectious disease demonstrate that LCω-3PUFA intake dampens immunity and alters pathogen clearance and can result in reduced survival. The same physiological properties of EPA/DHA that are responsible for the amelioration of inflammation associated with chronic cardiovascular pathology or autoimmune states, may impair pathogen clearance during acute infections by decreasing host resistance or interfere with tumor surveillance resulting in adverse health outcomes. Recent observations that high serum LCω-3PUFA levels are associated with higher risk of prostate cancer and atrial fibrillation raise concern for adverse outcomes. Given the widespread use of supplements and fortification of common food items with LCω-3PUFA, this review focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of the dietary LCω-3PUFAs, EPA and DHA, the mechanistic basis for potential negative health outcomes, and calls for biomarker development and validation as rational first steps towards setting recommended dietary intake levels.Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 09/2013; · 2.73 Impact Factor