The mechanisms by which Azolla caroliniana respond to salt stress in absence and presence of nitrate is investigated. Screening of amino acid and differential display is used to compare overall differences in gene expression between salinity-stressed and unstressed Azolla caroliniana by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PC R). Results showed that under saline conditions, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and leucine were the amino acids found to be abundant in Azolla caroliniana, accounting for 11.26%, 8.66%, 9.43%, and 12.36%, respectively. Following salinity stress, a decrease in free glutamate concomitant with a parallel decrease in free proline was indeed evident. Interaction between nitrate and salinity stress increased proline content significantly. By screening a cDNA library, we have identified protein products by homology with known proteins. The RNA transcripts encoding protein influencing secondary metabolites and vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter that facilitate the transport system. The databasematched under interaction of nitrate and 50 mM NaCl were associated with wall biosynthesis, disease resistance, metabolite transport and protein regulator, other gene for metabolism of steroids and secondary transport. Results obtained from this research could represent a key step in understanding the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance of Azolla caroliniana in the presence and absence of nitrate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yeast and animals use mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades to mediate stress and extracellular signals. We have tested whether MAP kinases are involved in mediating environmental stress responses in plants. Using specific peptide antibodies that were raised against different alfalfa MAP kinases, we found exclusive activation of p44MMK4 kinase in drought- and cold-treated plants. p44MMK4 kinase was transiently activated by these treatments and was correlated with a shift in the electrophoretic mobility of the p44MMK4 protein. Although transcript levels of the MMK4 gene accumulated after drought and cold treatment, no changes in p44MMK4 steady state protein levels were observed, indicating a posttranslational activation mechanism. Extreme temperatures, drought, and salt stress are considered to be different forms of osmotic stress. However, high salt concentrations or heat shock did not induce activation of p44MMK4, indicating the existence of distinct mechanisms to mediate different stresses in alfalfa. Stress adaptation in plants is mediated by abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent processes. Although ABA rapidly induced the transcription of an ABA-inducible marker gene, MMK4 transcript levels did not increase and p44MMK4 kinase was not activated. These data indicate that the MMK4 kinase pathway mediates drought and cold signaling independently of ABA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1996; 93(20):11274-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.93.20.11274 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized the expression of genes that correspond to a cDNA clone, RD29, which is induced by desiccation, cold and high-salt conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana. Northern analysis of desiccation-induced expression revealed a two-step induction process. Early induction occurs within 20 min and secondary induction occurs 3 h after the start of desiccation. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) induces RD29 mRNA within 3 h. Two genes corresponding to RD29, rd29A and rd29B, are located in tandem in an 8 kb region of the Arabidopsis genome and encode hydrophilic proteins. Desiccation induces rd29A mRNA with two-step kinetics, while rd29B is induced only 3 h after the start of desiccation. The expression of both genes is stimulated about 3 h after application of ABA. It appears that rd29A has at least two cis-acting elements, one involved in the ABA-associated response to desiccation and the other induced by changes in osmotic potential. The beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven by the rd29A promoter was induced at significant levels by desiccation, cold, high-salt conditions and ABA in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco. Histochemical analysis of GUS activity revealed that the rd29A promoter functions in almost all the organs and tissues of vegetative plants during water deficiency.
MGG - Molecular and General Genetics 02/1993; 236(2-3):331-40. DOI:10.1007/BF00277130
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcript regulation in response to high salinity was investigated for salt-tolerant rice (var Pokkali) with microarrays including 1728 cDNAs from libraries of salt-stressed roots. NaCl at 150 mM reduced photosynthesis to one tenth of the prestress value within minutes. Hybridizations of RNA to microarray slides probed for changes in transcripts from 15 min to 1 week after salt shock. Beginning 15 min after the shock, Pokkali showed upregulation of transcripts. Approximately 10% of the transcripts in Pokkali were significantly upregulated or downregulated within 1 hr of salt stress. The initial differences between control and stressed plants continued for hours but became less pronounced as the plants adapted over time. The interpretation of an adaptive process was supported by the similar analysis of salinity-sensitive rice (var IR29), in which the immediate response exhibited by Pokkali was delayed and later resulted in downregulation of transcription and death. The upregulated functions observed with Pokkali at different time points during stress adaptation changed over time. Increased protein synthesis and protein turnover were observed at early time points, followed by the induction of known stress-responsive transcripts within hours, and the induction of transcripts for defense-related functions later. After 1 week, the nature of upregulated transcripts (e.g., aquaporins) indicated recovery.
The Plant Cell 05/2001; 13(4):889-905. DOI:10.2307/3871347 · 9.34 Impact Factor
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