Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among persons aged ≥13 years--National HIV Surveillance System, United States, 2005-2008.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd, MS E-47, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 06/2012; 61 Suppl:57-64.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In the United States, approximately 1.1 million adults and adolescents are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and, each year, another 50,000 become infected. At the end of 2008, approximately 20% of the persons living with HIV had an undiagnosed infection. Of those living with HIV at the end of 2008, nearly two thirds were racial/ethnic minorities and half were men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2007, HIV ranked fifth as a leading cause of death among persons aged 35-44 years in the United States but third among blacks or African Americans in this age group. In 40 states with longstanding confidential name-based HIV surveillance systems, 33% of the estimated 41,768 adults and adolescents diagnosed with HIV infection in 2008 developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) within 1 year and, of these, 44% received their initial diagnosis in an acute care setting, suggesting that they received HIV testing late in the course of the infection. HIV-infected persons who are unaware of their infection or who receive a late diagnosis cannot benefit fully from timely initiation of therapy and are more likely to experience HIV-related morbidity and premature mortality. In addition, persons unaware of their infection are more likely to transmit HIV to others because of a higher prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors and higher levels of viral RNA that continue to replicate without appropriate antiretroviral treatment.

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    ABSTRACT: National rates from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) surveillance may not effectively convey the impact of HIV and STDs on American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. Instead, we compared average annual diagnosis rates per 100,000 population of HIV, chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC), and primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis, from 2007 to 2010, among AI/AN aged ≥13 years residing in 625 counties in the 12 Indian Health Service Areas, all AI/AN, and all races/ethnicities to address this gap. AI/AN comprised persons reported as AI/AN only, with or without Hispanic ethnicity. Out of 12 IHS Areas, 10 had higher case rates for CT, 3 for GC, and 4 for P&S syphilis compared to rates for all races/ethnicities. Eight Areas had higher HIV diagnosis rates than for all AI/AN, but HIV rates for all IHS Areas were lower than national rates for all races/ethnicities. Two IHS Areas ranking highest in rates of CT and GC and four Areas with highest P&S syphilis also had high HIV rates. STD and HIV rates among AI/AN were greater in certain IHS Areas than expected from observing national rates for AI/AN. Integrated surveillance of overlapping trends in STDs and HIV may be useful in guiding prevention efforts for AI/AN populations.
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May 19, 2014