Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among persons aged ≥13 years--National HIV Surveillance System, United States, 2005-2008.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd, MS E-47, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 06/2012; 61 Suppl:57-64.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In the United States, approximately 1.1 million adults and adolescents are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and, each year, another 50,000 become infected. At the end of 2008, approximately 20% of the persons living with HIV had an undiagnosed infection. Of those living with HIV at the end of 2008, nearly two thirds were racial/ethnic minorities and half were men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2007, HIV ranked fifth as a leading cause of death among persons aged 35-44 years in the United States but third among blacks or African Americans in this age group. In 40 states with longstanding confidential name-based HIV surveillance systems, 33% of the estimated 41,768 adults and adolescents diagnosed with HIV infection in 2008 developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) within 1 year and, of these, 44% received their initial diagnosis in an acute care setting, suggesting that they received HIV testing late in the course of the infection. HIV-infected persons who are unaware of their infection or who receive a late diagnosis cannot benefit fully from timely initiation of therapy and are more likely to experience HIV-related morbidity and premature mortality. In addition, persons unaware of their infection are more likely to transmit HIV to others because of a higher prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors and higher levels of viral RNA that continue to replicate without appropriate antiretroviral treatment.

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We sought to describe HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), who have the potential to bridge HIV transmission risk from men who have sex with men (MSM) to women. Methods. Applying National HIV Surveillance System data for persons aged 13 years and older, we examined estimated numbers and percentages of HIV diagnoses among MSMW and MSM only (MSMO) from 2008 to 2011, and estimated the annual percentage change and 95% confidence intervals, by age and race/ethnicity. Results. In 2011, 26.4% of 30 896 MSM diagnosed with HIV infection also had had sex with women. A larger percentage of MSMW were Black/African American (44.5%) compared with MSMO (36.0%), and fewer MSMW were White (26.4%) compared with MSMO (36.2%); similar percentages were classified as either MWMW or MSMO among other racial/ethnic groups. Among MSMW, HIV diagnoses were relatively stable and MSMO increased more than 6% annually among those aged 13 to 29 years. Conclusions. Many MSM diagnosed with HIV infection had also had sex with women. Intensified interventions are needed to decrease HIV infections overall for MSMW and reverse the increasing trends among young MSMO. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print July 17, 2014: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301990).
    American journal of public health. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM) are disproportionately burdened by new and existing HIV infections. In spite of this, few HIV prevention interventions have been developed that meet the specific needs of AAMSM and that are culturally appropriate and build on strengths and resources. In this paper, we examine constructed families, including those who belong to houses and those who do not, from a three city sample of 196 AAMSM. Results show that the majority of AAMSM who belong to constructed families do not participate in houses or balls. Both house and non-house affiliated constructed families are important sources of social support among AAMSM. Participants reported limited success in spreading HIV messages at ball events, but talk about HIV within their constructed families. Social network approaches to HIV prevention may capitalize on existing social ties within constructed families to promote safer sexual behaviors.
    AIDS and Behavior 07/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed HIV diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States continues to be a significant personal and public health issue. Using qualitative and quantitative data from 75 recently tested, HIV-sero-positive MSM (38 delayed and 37 nondelayed testers), the authors sought to further elucidate potential personal and contextual factors that may contribute to delayed HIV diagnosis among MSM. Findings indicate that MSM who experience multiple life stressors, whether personal or contextual, have an increased likelihood of delaying HIV diagnosis. Furthermore, MSM who experience multiple life stressors without the scaffolding of social support, stable mental health, and self-efficacy to engage in protective health behaviors may be particularly vulnerable to delaying diagnosis. Interventions targeting these factors as well as structural interventions targeting physiological and safety concerns are needed to help MSM handle their life stressors more effectively and seek HIV testing in a timelier manner.
    AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 04/2014; 26(2):122-33. · 1.51 Impact Factor


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May 19, 2014