Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among persons aged ≥13 years--National HIV Surveillance System, United States, 2005-2008.
ABSTRACT In the United States, approximately 1.1 million adults and adolescents are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and, each year, another 50,000 become infected. At the end of 2008, approximately 20% of the persons living with HIV had an undiagnosed infection. Of those living with HIV at the end of 2008, nearly two thirds were racial/ethnic minorities and half were men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2007, HIV ranked fifth as a leading cause of death among persons aged 35-44 years in the United States but third among blacks or African Americans in this age group. In 40 states with longstanding confidential name-based HIV surveillance systems, 33% of the estimated 41,768 adults and adolescents diagnosed with HIV infection in 2008 developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) within 1 year and, of these, 44% received their initial diagnosis in an acute care setting, suggesting that they received HIV testing late in the course of the infection. HIV-infected persons who are unaware of their infection or who receive a late diagnosis cannot benefit fully from timely initiation of therapy and are more likely to experience HIV-related morbidity and premature mortality. In addition, persons unaware of their infection are more likely to transmit HIV to others because of a higher prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors and higher levels of viral RNA that continue to replicate without appropriate antiretroviral treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Efforts to scale-up HIV care and treatment have been successful at initiating large numbers of patients onto antiretroviral therapy (ART), although persistent challenges remain to optimizing scale-up effectiveness in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings. Among the most important are very high rates of ART initiation in the advanced stages of HIV disease, which in turn drive morbidity, mortality, and onward transmission of HIV. With a focus on sub-Saharan Africa, this review article presents a conceptual framework for a broader discussion of the persistent problem of late ART initiation, including a need for more focus on the upstream precursors (late HIV diagnosis and late enrollment into HIV care) and their determinants. Without additional research and identification of multilevel interventions that successfully promote earlier initiation of ART, the problem of late ART initiation will persist, significantly undermining the long-term impact of HIV care scale-up on reducing mortality and controlling the HIV epidemic.Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 01/2013; 24(1):359-83. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Understanding factors associated with recent HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) is important for designing interventions to increase testing rates and link cases to care. A cross-sectional study of MSM was conducted in NYC in 2011 using venue-based sampling. Associations between HIV testing in the past 12 months and relevant variables were examined through the estimation of prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Of 448 participants, 107 (23.9 %) had not been tested in the past 12 months. Factors independently associated with not testing in the previous 12 months were: lack of a visit to a healthcare provider in the past 12 months (aPR: 2.5; 95 % CI: 1.9, 3.2); age ≥30 (adjusted PR: 1.9; 95 % CI: 1.4, 2.7); not having completed a bachelor's degree (aPR: 1.6; 95 % CI: 1.0, 2.4); and non-gay sexual identity (aPR: 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.0, 1.8); such MSM may be less aware of the need for frequent HIV testing.AIDS and Behavior 04/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
- AIDS (London, England) 04/2013; 27(7):1045-57. · 4.91 Impact Factor