Breast cancer screening among adult women--Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2010

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 2858 Woodcock Boulevard, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 06/2012; 61 Suppl:46-50.
Source: PubMed


Breast cancer continues to have a substantial impact on the health of women in the United States. It is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding skin cancers) among women, with more than 210,000 new cases diagnosed in 2008 (the most recent year for which data are available). Incidence rates are highest among white women at 122.6 per 100,000, followed by blacks at 118 per 100,000, Hispanics at 92.8, Asian/Pacific Islanders at 87.9, and American Indian/Alaskan Natives at 65.6. Although deaths from breast cancer have been declining in recent years, it has remained the second leading cause of cancer deaths for women since the late 1980s with >40,000 deaths reported in 2008. Although white women are more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer, black women are more likely to die from breast cancer than women of any other racial/ethnic group. In addition, studies have demonstrated that nonwhite minority women tend to have a more advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. Breast cancer also occurs more often among women aged ≥50 years, those with first-degree family members with breast cancer, and those who have certain genetic mutations. Understanding who is at risk for breast cancer helps inform guidelines for who should get screened for breast cancer.

12 Reads
  • Source
    • "It is estimated that there are millions of symptomatic women that are affected by BC and millions more currently asymptomatic that will develop cancer (1). Incidence rates are variable in different ethnicities (2). In Mexico, the incidence of BC has increased within the last 7 yr, and BC is now one of the main causes of death in productive age females, only 10% of all cases are detected at stage I (3, 4). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene plays an important role in several biological functions. Polymorphisms of the eNOS gene have been associated with cancer. It has been suggested that the VNTR 4 a/b polymorphism may affect the expression of eNOS and contributes to tumor promotion in the mammary gland. We examined the role of the eNOS4 a/b polymorphism by comparing the genotypes of 281 healthy Mexican women with the genotypes of 429 Mexican women with breast cancer (BC). The observed genotype frequencies for control and BC patients were 0.6% and 0.7% for a/a (polymorphic); 87% and 77% for a/a (wild type); and 12% and 22% for a/b respectively. We found that the odds ratio (OR) was 1.9, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of 1.29-2.95, P = 0.001 for genotypes a/a-a/b, b/c. The association was also evident when comparing the distribution of the a/a-a/b genotypes in patients with high levels of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14-3.28; P = 0.015); undergoing menopause with high levels of SGOT (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.84); and with high levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.56-8.22). The genotypes a/a-a/b are associated with BC susceptibility in the analyzed samples from the Mexican population.
    Journal of Korean medical science 11/2013; 28(11):1587-1594. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.11.1587 · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Our findings of poorer survival among AYA breast cancer patients living in lower SES neighborhoods is supported by previous studies involving women of all ages using SEER data [30-32]. Although explanations for SES differences in survival are not well documented, advanced stage at diagnosis has been the most cited explanatory factor [32,33]—perhaps because of screening disparities among women age 40 to 79 years [34]—and increasing evidence suggests inadequate breast cancer treatment and follow-up care among patients in lower SES groups [33]. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that disparities in breast cancer treatment modalities are associated with health insurance status [35-37], a measure we found to be associated with survival in our study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Young women have poorer survival after breast cancer than older women. It is unclear whether this survival difference relates to the unique distribution of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) defined molecular breast cancer subtypes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women aged 15--39 years. The purpose of our study was to examine associations between breast cancer subtypes and short-term survival in AYA women, as well as determine whether the distinct molecular subtype distribution among AYA women explains the unfavorable overall breast cancer survival statistics reported for AYA women compared to older women. Data for 5,331 AYA breast cancers diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Survival by subtype (triple-negative; HR+/HER2-; HR+/HER2+; HR-/HER2+) and age-group (AYA versus 40 to 64 year olds) was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards regression with follow-up through 2010. With up to 6 years of follow-up and a mean survival time of 3.1 years (SD = 1.5 years), AYA women diagnosed with HR-/HER + and triple-negative breast cancer experienced a 1.6-fold and 2.7-fold increased risk of death, respectively, from all causes (HR-/HER + hazard ratio: 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 2.18; triple negative HR: 2.75; 95% CI: 2.06, 3.66) and breast cancer (HR-/HER + hazard ratio: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.36; triple negative hazard ratio: 2.71; 955 CI: 1.98, 3.71) than AYA women with HR+/HER2- breast cancer. AYA women who resided in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods, had public health insurance and were of Black, compared to White, race/ethnicity experienced worse survival. This race/ethnicity association was attenuated somewhat after adjusting for breast cancer subtypes (hazard ratio: 1.33; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.82). AYA women had similar all-cause and breast cancer-specific short-term survival as older women for all breast cancer subtypes and across all stages of disease. Among AYA women with breast cancer, short-term survival varied by breast cancer subtypes, with the distribution of breast cancer subtypes explaining some of the poorer survival observed among Black, compared to White, AYA women. Future studies should consider whether distribution of breast cancer subtypes and other factors, including differential receipt of treatment regimens, influence long-term survival in young compared with older women.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 10/2013; 15(5):R95. DOI:10.1186/bcr3556 · 5.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Time delay after an abnormal screening mammogram may have a critical impact on tumor size, stage at diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and survival of subsequent breast cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate disparities between Latina and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women in time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer after an abnormal screening mammogram, as well as factors contributing to such disparities. As part of the activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded Redes En Acción research network, clinical records of 186 Latinas and 74 NHWs who received abnormal screening mammogram results were reviewed to determine the time to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Data was obtained from participating clinics in six U.S. cities and included demographics, clinical history, and mammogram characteristics. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test differences in median time to definitive diagnosis by ethnicity after adjusting for clinic site, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Time-to-event analysis showed that Latinas took 2.2 times longer to reach 50% definitively diagnosed with breast cancer relative to NHWs, and three times longer to reach 80% diagnosed (p=0.001). Latinas’ median time to definitive diagnosis was 60 days compared to 27 for NHWs, a 59% gap in diagnosis rates (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.31; p=0.015). BI-RADS-4/5 women’s diagnosis rate was more than twice that of BI-RADS-3 (aHR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.78; p=0.011). Disparities in time between receipt of abnormal screening result and definitive diagnosis adversely affect Latinas compared to NHWs, and remain significant after adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. With cancer now the leading cause of mortality among Latinos, a greater need exists for ethnically and culturally appropriate interventions like patient navigation to facilitate Latinas’ successful entry into, and progression through, the cancer care system.
    SpringerPlus 02/2013; 2(1):84. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-2-84
Show more


12 Reads
Available from