Are the frail destined to fail? Frailty index as predictor of surgical morbidity and mortality in the elderly
ABSTRACT America's aging population has led to an increase in the number of elderly patients necessitating emergency general surgery. Previous studies have demonstrated that increased frailty is a predictor of outcomes in medicine and surgical patients. We hypothesized that use of a modification of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Frailty Index would be a predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients older than 60 years undergoing emergency general surgery.
Data were obtained from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Files database in compliance with the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Data Use Agreement. We selected all emergency cases in patients older than 60 years performed by general surgeons from 2005 to 2009. The effect of increasing frailty on multiple outcomes including wound infection, wound occurrence, any infection, any occurrence, and mortality was then evaluated.
Total sample size was 35,334 patients. As the modified frailty index increased, associated increases occurred in wound infection, wound occurrence, any infection, any occurrence, and mortality. Logistic regression of multiple variables demonstrated that the frailty index was associated with increased mortality with an odds ratio of 11.70 (p < 0.001).
Frailty index is an important predictive variable in emergency general surgery patients older than 60 years. The modified frailty index can be used to evaluate risk of both morbidity and mortality in these patients. Frailty index will be a valuable preoperative risk assessment tool for the acute care surgeon. Level of Evidence: Prognostic study, level II.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Years ago, patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI) were reported to be at high risk of reinfarction (27%) and death after surgery. Therapy has changed in the 3 decades since those reports, so we reexamined that risk as well as other cardiac comorbidities and surgical work values in predicting adverse outcome.Methods: We used the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Data File for 2005 to 2009. We included all patients of all included specialties, for outpatient and inpatient surgery. Cardiac comorbidities included history of congestive heart failure (30 days) or MI (6 months), percutaneous coronary intervention, previous cardiac surgery, and history of angina (30 days). Other predictors included a frailty index and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class. Adverse cardiac events included cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation, MI, and death. Cases were stratified according to surgical work units. Univariate χ(2) analysis and multivariate logistic regression established simple relationships and interactions, with p < 0.05 significant.Results: Of patients who had recent MI, 2.1% had reinfarction perioperatively and 26% of those died. The odds ratio for infarction with vs without recent MI in inpatients age 40 years and older was 4.6. Frailty and ASA class were stronger predictors of perioperative MI and cardiac arrest than was history of MI, and risk increased as surgical work increased.Discussion: The risk caused by preoperative MI has improved by an order of magnitude in the last 30 years. The ASA class and especially frailty are better predictors of adverse cardiac events.The Permanente journal 01/2012; 16(4):4-9.
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ABSTRACT: OPINION STATEMENT: Elderly patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer present a complex treatment dilemma. On the one hand, patients can be treated with primary debulking surgery to achieve the ideal oncologic outcomes but at the expense of risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, they can be treated with alternative, less morbid approaches, reducing toxicity, but sacrificing the survival benefits of low residual disease by surgical cytoreduction. Retrospective studies have attempted to identify risk factors for poor surgical outcome. Although there is no consensus to define "elderly" or "frail," current evidence identifies age, performance status, nutritional status, and surgical complexity as major risk factors for surgical morbidity. Accepting the shortcomings of these retrospective data, candidates for primary debulking surgery can be assessed for risk of surgical morbidity. Age is likely a contributor to morbidity, particularly in the face of comorbid conditions. Clinicians should strive to treat elderly patients with a standard approach of primary debulking surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy when healthy and in the absence of other risk factors. Elderly patients with the following are poor surgical candidates and an alternative treatment approach should be considered: poor nutritional status (characterized by serum albumin <3.0 g/dL), or poor performance status (ASA ≥3), and stage IV disease. Several of these factors are modifiable by treating the underlying cancer. These patients should be treated with two to three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and reassessed for surgical debulking. Patients with improvement in their nutritional or performance status can undergo interval debulking with the goal to resect all visible disease.Current Treatment Options in Oncology 11/2012; 14(1). DOI:10.1007/s11864-012-0216-2 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Surgical Recovery Score (SRS) is a validated, comprehensive recovery assessment tool used to measure functional recovery after major surgery. To further evaluate its clinical applicability, this study investigated whether the SRS correlates with clinical outcomes and the occurrence of complications after elective colectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data for consecutive patients undergoing elective colonic resection within an enhanced recovery program at our institution from September 2008 to September 2011. We administered the 31-item SRS questionnaire preoperatively (baseline) and on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30. We scored individual questionnaires as a percentage of the maximum possible score, with a higher SRS indicating improved functional recovery (range, 17-100). We prospectively recorded clinical outcomes and graded 30-d complications as per the Clavien-Dindo classification. We conducted univariate and logistic regression analysis to determine the correlation of the SRS to the development of complications. RESULTS: We evaluated 134 patients, 62 of whom developed minor complications (grades 1-2) (46%) and 21 of whom developed major complications (grades 3-5) (16%). The SRS was similar at baseline in the complicated and uncomplicated groups but significantly lower on postoperative days 3, 7, 14, and 30 in patients who developed major complications, and on days 7 and 14 in patients who developed minor complications. In a logistic regression analysis, the SRS on postoperative day 3 was independently associated with the development of any complication, as well as major complications specifically. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to measuring functional recovery, the SRS closely correlates with the development of complications after elective colectomy and offers a reliable outcome measure to assess overall postoperative recovery.Journal of Surgical Research 12/2012; 184(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2012.12.005 · 2.12 Impact Factor