Are the frail destined to fail? Frailty index as predictor of surgical morbidity and mortality in the elderly
ABSTRACT America's aging population has led to an increase in the number of elderly patients necessitating emergency general surgery. Previous studies have demonstrated that increased frailty is a predictor of outcomes in medicine and surgical patients. We hypothesized that use of a modification of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Frailty Index would be a predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients older than 60 years undergoing emergency general surgery.
Data were obtained from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Files database in compliance with the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Data Use Agreement. We selected all emergency cases in patients older than 60 years performed by general surgeons from 2005 to 2009. The effect of increasing frailty on multiple outcomes including wound infection, wound occurrence, any infection, any occurrence, and mortality was then evaluated.
Total sample size was 35,334 patients. As the modified frailty index increased, associated increases occurred in wound infection, wound occurrence, any infection, any occurrence, and mortality. Logistic regression of multiple variables demonstrated that the frailty index was associated with increased mortality with an odds ratio of 11.70 (p < 0.001).
Frailty index is an important predictive variable in emergency general surgery patients older than 60 years. The modified frailty index can be used to evaluate risk of both morbidity and mortality in these patients. Frailty index will be a valuable preoperative risk assessment tool for the acute care surgeon. Level of Evidence: Prognostic study, level II.
SourceAvailable from: Amber Brooks[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nearly 50% of Americans will have an operation after the age of 65 years. Traditional preoperative anesthesia consultations capture only some of the information needed to identify older patients (defined as ≥65 years of age) undergoing elective surgery who are at increased risk for postoperative complications, prolonged hospital stays, and delayed or hampered functional recovery. As a catalyst to this review, we compared traditional risk scores (eg, cardiac-focused) to geriatric-specific risk measures from two older female patients seen in our preoperative clinic who were scheduled for elective, robotic-assisted hysterectomies. Despite having a lower cardiac risk index and Charlson comorbidity score, the younger of the two patients presented with more subtle negative geriatric-specific risk predictors - including intermediate or pre-frail status, borderline malnutrition, and reduced functional/mobility - which may have contributed to her 1-day-longer length of stay and need for readmission. Adequate screening of physiologic and cognitive reserves in older patients scheduled for surgery could identify at-risk, vulnerable elders and enable proactive perioperative management strategies (eg, strength, balance, and mobility prehabilitation) to reduce adverse postoperative outcomes and readmissions. Here, we describe our initial two cases and review the stress response to surgery and the impact of advanced age on this response as well as preoperative geriatric assessments, including frailty, nutrition, physical function, cognition, and mood state tests that may better predict postoperative outcomes in older adults. A brief overview of the literature on anesthetic techniques that may influence geriatric-related syndromes is also presented.Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2015; 10:13-27. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S75285 · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Becoming old is considered a privilege and results from the socioeconomic progress and improvements in health care systems worldwide. However, morbidity and mortality increases with age, and even more so in acute onset disease. With the current prospects of longevity, a considerable number of elderly patients will continue to live with good function and excellent quality of life after emergency surgical care. However, mortality in emergency surgery may be reported at 15-30%, doubled if associated with complications, and notably higher in patients over 75 years. A number of risks associated with death are reported, and a number of scores proposed for prediction of risk. Frailty, a decline in the physiological reserves that may make the person vulnerable to even the most minor of stressful event, appears to be a valid indicator and predictor of risk and poor outcome, but how to best address and measure frailty in the emergency setting is not clear. Futility may sometimes be clearly defined, but most often becomes a borderline decision between ethics, clinical predictions and patient communication for which no solid evidence currently exists. The number and severity of other underlying condition(s), as well as the treatment alternatives and their consequences, is a complex picture to interpret. Add in the onset of the acute surgical disease as a further potential detrimental factor on function and quality of life ¿ and you have a perfect storm to handle. In this brief review, some of the challenging aspects related to emergency surgery in the elderly will be discussed. More research, including registries and trials, are needed for improved knowledge to a growing health care challenge.Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 02/2015; 23(1):10. DOI:10.1186/s13049-015-0099-x · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Frailty has no single universally accepted definition or method for assessment. It is commonly defined from a physiological perspective as a disruption of homeostatic mechanisms ultimately leading to a vulnerable state. Numerous scoring indices and assessments exist to assist clinicians in determining the frailty status of a patient. The purpose of this review is to discuss the relationship between frailty and perioperative outcomes in surgical patients. We performed a review to determine the association of frailty with perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing a wide variety of surgical procedures. A scoping literature search was performed to capture studies from MEDLINE(®), EMBASE™, and CENTRAL (Cochrane), which resulted in locating 175 studies across the three electronic databases. After an article screening process, 19 studies were found that examined frailty and perioperative outcomes. The studies used a range of assessments to determine frailty status and included patients in a variety of surgical fields. Regardless of surgical population and method of frailty assessment, a relationship existed between adverse perioperative outcomes and frailty status. Frail patients undergoing surgical procedures had a higher likelihood than non-frail patients of experiencing mortality, morbidity, complications, increased hospital length of stay, and discharge to an institution. Patients undergoing surgery who are deemed frail, regardless of the scoring assessment used, have a higher likelihood of experiencing adverse perioperative outcomes. With the lack of a unified definition for frailty, further research is needed to address which assessment method is most predictive of adverse postoperative outcomes.Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 11/2014; 62(2). DOI:10.1007/s12630-014-0273-z · 2.50 Impact Factor