The absence of Complexin 3 and Complexin 4 differentially impacts the ON and OFF pathways in mouse retina.
ABSTRACT Complexins (Cplxs) regulate the speed and Ca(2+)-sensitivity of synaptic vesicle fusion. It has been shown that all four known Cplxs are present at mouse retinal synapses--at conventional amacrine cell synapses (Cplx 1 to Cplx 3) and at photoreceptor and bipolar cell ribbon synapses (Cplx 3 and Cplx 4) [K. Reim et al. (2005) J. Cell Biol., 169, 669-680]. Electroretinographic recordings in Cplx 3/Cplx 4 double-knockout (DKO) mice showed perturbed transmission in the outer plexiform layer, and possible changes in the inner plexiform layer [K. Reim et al. (2009) J. Cell Sci., 122, 1352-1361]. In the present study, we examined the effects of the absence of Cplx 3 and Cplx 4 on ganglion cell responses. We report that the lack of Cplx 3 and Cplx 4 differentially impacts the ON and OFF pathways. Under photopic conditions, the responses in the cone OFF pathway are largely unaffected, whereas the responses in the cone ON pathway are diminished in Cplx 3/Cplx 4 DKO mice. Under scotopic conditions, both ON and OFF response rates are reduced and high-sensitivity OFF responses are missing in Cplx 3/Cplx 4 DKO mice. The electrophysiological findings are corroborated by new immunocytochemical findings. We now show that rod spherules contain only Cplx 4. However, both Cplx 3 and Cplx 4 co-localize in cone pedicles. In the inner plexiform layer, Cplx 3 is present in rod bipolar cell terminals and in amacrine cell processes. Most importantly, Cplx 3 is localized in the lobular appendages of AII amacrine cells, the sites of signal transmission from the primary rod pathway into the OFF pathway in the inner plexiform layer.
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ABSTRACT: The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.Neuron 03/2003; 37(3):379-82. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SNARE-mediated synaptic exocytosis is orchestrated by facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. Genetic ablations of Complexins, a family of SNARE-complex-binding proteins, in mice and Drosophila cause apparently opposite effects on neurotransmitter release, leading to contradictory hypotheses of Complexin function. Reconstitution experiments with different fusion assays and Complexins also yield conflicting results. We therefore performed cross-species rescue experiments to compare the functions of murine and Drosophila Complexins in both mouse and fly synapses. We found that murine and Drosophila Complexins employ conserved mechanisms to regulate exocytosis despite their strikingly different overall effects on neurotransmitter release. Both Complexins contain distinct domains that facilitate or inhibit synaptic vesicle fusion, and the strength of each facilitatory or inhibitory function differs significantly between murine and Drosophila Complexins. Our results show that a relative shift in the balance of facilitatory and inhibitory functions results in differential regulation of neurotransmitter release by murine and Drosophila Complexins in vivo, reconciling previous incompatible findings.Neuron 11/2009; 64(3):367-80. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Complexins regulate the speed and Ca(2+) sensitivity of SNARE-mediated synaptic vesicle fusion at conventional synapses. Two of the vertebrate complexins, Cplx3 and Cplx4, are specifically localized to retinal ribbon synapses. To test whether Cplx3 and Cplx4 contribute to the highly efficient transmitter release at ribbon synapses, we studied retina function and structure in Cplx3 and Cplx4 single- and double-knockout mice. Electroretinographic recordings from single and double mutants revealed a cooperative perturbing effect of Cplx3 and Cplx4 deletion on the b-wave amplitude, whereas most other detected effects in both plexiform synaptic layers were additive. Light and electron microscopic analyses uncovered a disorganized outer plexiform layer in the retinae of mice lacking Cplx3 and Cplx4, with a significant proportion of photoreceptor terminals containing spherical free-floating ribbons. These structural and functional aberrations were accompanied by behavioural deficits indicative of a vision deficit. Our results show that Cplx3 and Cplx4 are essential regulators of transmitter release at retinal ribbon synapses. Their loss leads to aberrant adjustment and fine-tuning of transmitter release at the photoreceptor ribbon synapse, alterations in transmission at bipolar cell terminals, changes in the temporal structure of synaptic processing in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and perturbed vision.Journal of Cell Science 06/2009; 122(Pt 9):1352-61. · 5.88 Impact Factor