Assessment of left ventricular hemodynamics and function of patients with uremia by vortex formation using vector flow mapping.
ABSTRACT A novel echocardiographic method, vector flow mapping (VFM), acquires velocity vector from color Doppler velocity data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether VFM could provide useful information on intracardiac flow and helpful to evaluate left ventricular (LV) function. Thirty-eight patients with uremia undergoing hemodialysis and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The maximum vector velocity, maximum diameter and duration of the intracardiac vortex were measured using VFM software during systole and diastole. The maximum vector velocity of the vortex and the peak velocities at the basal septum and lateral mitral annulus measured by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were correlated. The maximum diameter and duration of vortex formation were significantly higher in uremic patients compared with the control group during the ejection phase (40.6 ± 7.9 cm/sec vs. 28.1 ± 3.9 cm/sec; 297.1 ± 22.1 msec vs. 145.4 ± 19.3 msec, all P < 0.001). The maximal diameters of the vortex were higher in uremic patients compared with the control group during diastole (25.6 ± 3.4 mm vs. 16.4 ± 2.1 mm; 34.3 ± 3.1 mm vs. 26.8 ± 3.9 mm; 37.5 ± 2.4 mm vs. 20.9 ± 2.1 mm; all P < 0.001). The maximum vector velocities were lower in mid-diastole and late diastole (23.6 ± 2.3 cm/sec vs. 45.2 ± 3.7 cm/sec; 31.9 ± 2.9 cm/sec vs. 54.7 ± 3.2 cm/sec, all P < 0.001). There was a correlation between the maximum vector velocity of the vortex in mid-diastole and E'/A' at the septum and lateral mitral annulus (r = 0.70, r = 0.76, P < 0.001). Vortex can be utilized to provide intracardiac dynamic information using VFM and it may be a good supplement for evaluating LV function.