"The potential applications range from spatial priors (Groves et al., 2009), cortical maps (Macke et al., 2011), image denoising (Zhu et al., 2012), parameter estimation (Wang et al., 2012), white matter fiber clustering (Wassermann et al., 2010) and meta-analysis (Salimi-Khorshidi et al., 2011). GP models were shown to be particularly powerful for clinical applications, providing probabilistic predictions of symptom severity, pain states, recovery, cognitive and disease states using regression (Doyle et al., 2013a; Hope et al., 2013; Marquand et al., 2010) and classification (Hahn et al., 2011; Marquand et al., 2010; Mourao-Miranda et al., 2012; Pyka et al., 2012; Young et al., 2013) using functional and structural MR images as inputs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global grey matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local grey matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease.
"An association of resting-state cortical activity and WM performance has previously been observed using hemodynamic and neurophysiological markers –, –. More specifically, some investigators reported that resting-state activation in the parietal region is consistently linked to an attention network and n-back performance , –. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Working memory (WM) represents the brain's ability to maintain information in a readily available state for short periods of time. This study examines the resting-state cortical activity patterns that are most associated with performance on a difficult working-memory task.
Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) band-passed (delta/theta (1-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (14-30 Hz)) and sensor based regional power was collected in a population of adult men (18-28 yrs, n = 24) in both an eyes-closed and eyes-open resting state. The normalized power within each resting state condition as well as the normalized change in power between eyes closed and open (zECO) were correlated with performance on a WM task. The regional and band-limited measures that were most associated with performance were then combined using singular value decomposition (SVD) to determine the degree to which zECO power was associated with performance on the three-back verbal WM task.
Changes in power from eyes closed to open revealed a significant decrease in power in all band-widths that was most pronounced in the posterior brain regions (delta/theta band). zECO right posterior frontal and parietal cortex delta/theta power were found to be inversely correlated with three-back working memory performance. The SVD evaluation of the most correlated zECO metrics then provided a singular measure that was highly correlated with three-back performance (r = -0.73, p<0.0001).
Our results indicate that there is an association between WM performance and changes in resting-state power (right posterior frontal and parietal delta/theta power). Moreover, an SVD of the most associated zECO measures produces a composite resting-state metric of regional neural oscillatory power that has an improved association with WM performance. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation that has found that changes in resting state electromagnetic neural patterns are highly associated with verbal working memory performance.
PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e66820. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0066820 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Task-induced deactivation (TID) refers to a regional decrease in blood flow during an active task relative to a "resting" or "passive" baseline. We tested the hypothesis that TID results from a reallocation of processing resources by parametrically manipulating task difficulty within three factors: target discriminability, stimulus presentation rate, and short-term memory load. Subjects performed an auditory target detection task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), responding to a single target tone or, in the short-term memory load conditions, to target sequences. Seven task conditions (a common version and two additional levels for each of the three factors) were each alternated with "rest" in a block design. Analysis of covariance identified brain regions in which TID occurred. Analyses of variance identified seven regions (left anterior cingulate/superior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus, left and right posterior cingulate gyrus, left posterior parieto-occipital cortex, and right precuneus) in which TID magnitude varied across task levels within a factor. Follow-up tests indicated that for each of the three factors, TID magnitude increased with task difficulty. These results suggest that TID represents reallocation of processing resources from areas in which TID occurs to areas involved in task performance. Short-term memory load and stimulus rate also predict suppression of spontaneous thought, and many of the brain areas showing TID have been linked with semantic processing, supporting claims that TID may be due in part to suspension of spontaneous semantic processes that occur during "rest" (Binder et al., 1999). The concept that the typical "resting state" is actually a condition characterized by rich cognitive activity has important implications for the design and analysis of neuroimaging studies.
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