This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3. Most women with early cervical cancer (stages I to IIA) are cured with surgery or radiotherapy, or both. We performed this review originally because it was unclear whether cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgery, radiotherapy or both, in women with early stage disease with risk factors for recurrence, was associated with additional survival benefits or risks.
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of platinum-based chemotherapy after radical hysterectomy, radiotherapy, or both in the treatment of early stage cervical cancer.
For the original 2009 review, we searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and CancerLit, the National Research Register and Clinical Trials register, with no language restriction. We handsearched abstracts of scientific meetings and other relevant publications. We extended the database searches to November 2011 for this update.
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (after radical surgery, radiotherapy or both) with no adjuvant chemotherapy, in women with early stage cervical cancer (stage IA2-IIA) with at least one risk factor for recurrence.
Two review authors extracted data independently. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, with death and disease progression as outcomes.
For this updated version, we identified three additional ongoing trials but no new studies for inclusion. Three trials including 368 evaluable women with early cervical cancer were included in the meta-analyses. The median follow-up period in these trials ranged from 29 to 42 months. All women had undergone surgery first. Two trials compared chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone; and one trial compared chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone. It was not possible to perform subgroup analyses by stage or tumour size.Compared with adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy significantly reduced the risk of death (two trials, 297 women; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36 to 0.87) and disease progression (two trials, 297 women; HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.74), with no heterogeneity between trials (I² = 0% for both meta-analyses). Acute grade 4 toxicity occurred significantly more frequently in the chemotherapy plus radiotherapy group than in the radiotherapy group (risk ratio (RR) 5.66, 95% CI 2.14 to 14.98). We considered this evidence to be of a moderate quality due to small numbers and limited follow-up in the included studies. In addition, it was not possible to separate data for bulky early stage disease.In the one small trial that compared adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy with adjuvant radiotherapy alone there was no significant difference in disease recurrence between the groups (HR = 1.34; 95% CI 0.24 to 7.66) and OS was not reported. We considered this evidence to be of a low quality.No trials compared adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy with no adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for early cervical cancer with risk factors for recurrence.
The addition of platinum-based chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy (chemoradiation) may improve survival in women with early stage cervical cancer (IA2-IIA) and risk factors for recurrence. Adjuvant chemoradiation is associated with an increased risk of severe acute toxicity, although it is not clear whether this toxicity is significant in the long-term due to a lack of long-term data. This evidence is limited by the small numbers and poor methodological quality of included studies. We await the results of three ongoing trials, that are likely to have an important impact on our confidence in this evidence.
"Cervical carcinoma development begins with the infection of the cervical epithelium by high-risk human papillomaviruses (hr-HPVs) [3-5]. Although cervical cancer can be detected in its early stages by HPV testing and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening and successfully eradicated through surgery, curative treatments do not yet exist for advanced, recurrent or metastatic disease [6-8]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity characterizes a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in several malignancies. To clarify whether ALDH can be used as a marker of cervical cancer stem cells (CCSCs), ALDHhigh and ALDHlow cells were sorted from 4 cervical cancer cell lines and 5 primary tumor xenografts and examined for CSC characteristics. Here, we demonstrate that cervical cancer cells with high ALDH activity fulfill the functional criteria for CSCs: (1) ALDHhigh cells, unlike ALDHlow cells, are highly tumorigenic in vivo; (2) ALDHhigh cells can give rise to both ALDHhigh and ALDHlow cells in vitro and in vivo, thereby establishing a cellular hierarchy; and (3) ALDHhigh cells have enhanced self-renewal and differentiation potentials. Additionally, ALDHhigh cervical cancer cells are more resistant to cisplatin treatment than ALDHlow cells. Finally, expression of the stem cell self-renewal-associated transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and BMI1 is elevated in ALDHhigh cervical cancer cells. Taken together, our data indicated that high ALDH activity may represent both a functional marker for CCSCs and a target for novel cervical cancer therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to compare the two most commonly recommended chemotherapy regimens (platinum-based chemotherapy and platinum-taxane combination) with non-platinum-based chemotherapy and those with no chemotherapy in a large nationwide and population-based cohort of patients with ovarian cancer with up to 17 years of follow-up. We studied 12,181 patients diagnosed with stages I-IV ovarian cancer at age ≥65 in 1991-2005 from the 16 areas of the United States. We also performed matched cohort analyses based on conditional probability of receiving platinum chemotherapy in 3,428 patients. In patients with early stage ovarian cancer, those who received platinum-taxane combination had the highest 5-year all-cause (62.5 %) and cancer-specific (65.1 %) survival rates, as compared to 51.5 and 63.7 % in those without chemotherapy. After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios of all-cause mortality (0.66, 95 % CI 0.55-0.79) and cancer-specific mortality (0.74, 0.61-0.90) were significantly lower in patients receiving platinum-taxane combination as compared to those without chemotherapy. Among patients with late-stage ovarian cancer, risks of mortality were significantly reduced in patients who received both platinum and taxane (0.38, 0.36-0.41 for all-cause mortality; 0.40, 0.37-0.42 for cancer-specific mortality). Dose-response relationship appeared strong within each of the three chemotherapy regimens. These results and trends were almost identical in the matched cohort. Platinum-taxane combination chemotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy without taxane were effective in prolonging survival with a significant dose-response relationship among patients with late-stage ovarian cancer. Among those with early stage tumors, platinum-taxane combination appeared more effective than other chemotherapy regimens.
Medical Oncology 03/2013; 30(1):440. DOI:10.1007/s12032-012-0440-4 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12 days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14 days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14 days (twice 3 ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect.
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