Acetylation of malate dehydrogenase 1 promotes adipogenic differentiation via activating its enzymatic activity.
ABSTRACT Acetylation is one of the most crucial post-translational modifications that affect protein function. Protein lysine acetylation is catalyzed by acetyltransferases, and acetyl-CoA functions as the source of the acetyl group. Additionally, acetyl-CoA plays critical roles in maintaining the balance between carbohydrate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis. Here, we sought to determine whether lysine acetylation is an important process for adipocyte differentiation. Based on an analysis of the acetylome during adipogenesis, various proteins displaying significant quantitative changes were identified by LC-MS/MS. Of these identified proteins, we focused on malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1). The acetylation level of MDH1 was increased up to 6-fold at the late stage of adipogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of MDH1 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced a significant increase in the number of cells undergoing adipogenesis. The introduction of mutations to putative lysine acetylation sites showed a significant loss of the ability of cells to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the acetylation of MDH1 dramatically enhanced its enzymatic activity and subsequently increased the intracellular levels of NADPH. These results clearly suggest that adipogenic differentiation may be regulated by the acetylation of MDH1 and that the acetylation of MDH1 is one of the cross-talk mechanisms between adipogenesis and the intracellular energy level.
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ABSTRACT: Expanded adipose tissue mass increases the risk for many clinical conditions including diabetes, hypertension, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, and some forms of cancer. Therefore, it is imperative that we understand the mechanisms by which fat pads expand. The enlargement of fat cells during the development of obesity has been previously hypothesized to be a triggering factor for the proliferation of new fat cells. There is now a preponderance of evidence that adipose tissue is a source of growth factors such as IGF-I, IGF binding proteins, TNF alpha, angiotensin II, and MCSF that are capable of stimulating proliferation. The relative importance of these autocrine/paracrine factors in the normal control of preadipocyte proliferation is unknown. In addition, the proliferative response of preadipocytes to the paracrine milieu is undoubtedly modulated by neural inputs to fat tissue and/or serum factors. Together, these multiple regulatory controls orchestrate overall and region-specific adipose tissue cellularity responses associated with the development of hyperplastic obesity. Both in vivo and in vitro studies are needed to understand the complex, interacting physiological mechanisms by which growth of this important organ is regulated.Obesity Reviews 12/2001; 2(4):239-54. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that increased mitochondrial metabolism and the concomitant decrease in NADH levels mediate calorie restriction (CR)-induced life span extension. The mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form) and NADH, and it is unclear how CR relays increased mitochondrial metabolism to multiple cellular pathways that reside in spatially distinct compartments. Here we show that the mitochondrial components of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle (Mdh1 [malate dehydrogenase] and Aat1 [aspartate amino transferase]) and the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle (Gut2, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) are novel longevity factors in the CR pathway in yeast. Overexpressing Mdh1, Aat1, and Gut2 extend life span and do not synergize with CR. Mdh1 and Aat1 overexpressions require both respiration and the Sir2 family to extend life span. The mdh1Deltaaat1Delta double mutation blocks CR-mediated life span extension and also prevents the characteristic decrease in the NADH levels in the cytosolic/nuclear pool, suggesting that the malate-aspartate shuttle plays a major role in the activation of the downstream targets of CR such as Sir2. Overexpression of the NADH shuttles may also extend life span by increasing the metabolic fitness of the cells. Together, these data suggest that CR may extend life span and ameliorate age-associated metabolic diseases by activating components of the NADH shuttles.Genes & Development 05/2008; 22(7):931-44. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A theoretical analysis of the energy metabolism associated with the conversion of glucose to fat is presented. In tissues where the pentose cycle furnishes some of the NADPH required for fatty acid synthesis, this conversion is an ATP-yielding process. In rat adipose tissue the maximal rate of glucose conversion to fat can be quantatively predicted on the basis of the tissue's ability to use the ATP which is generated in excess during this conversion. The energy-generating nature of this process provides the means for a type of regulation which depends on metabolic state and which, during fasting, contributes to the sparing of carbohydrate. Impairment of lipogenesis in the fasting state is attributed to a decrease in the activity of the malate cycle and to the presence of free fatty acids. However, rather than by inhibiting specific enzymes, it is by virtue of their quality as substrates for energy production that free fatty acids and their CoA derivatives appear to inhibit de novo lipogenesis. The regulatory phenomena discussed here may explain the failure of the attempts made to identify the rate-limiting step for de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue.The Journal of Lipid Research 04/1970; 11(2):131-43. · 4.39 Impact Factor