Acetylation is one of the most crucial post-translational modifications that affect protein function. Protein lysine acetylation is catalyzed by acetyltransferases, and acetyl-CoA functions as the source of the acetyl group. Additionally, acetyl-CoA plays critical roles in maintaining the balance between carbohydrate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis. Here, we sought to determine whether lysine acetylation is an important process for adipocyte differentiation. Based on an analysis of the acetylome during adipogenesis, various proteins displaying significant quantitative changes were identified by LC-MS/MS. Of these identified proteins, we focused on malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1). The acetylation level of MDH1 was increased up to 6-fold at the late stage of adipogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of MDH1 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced a significant increase in the number of cells undergoing adipogenesis. The introduction of mutations to putative lysine acetylation sites showed a significant loss of the ability of cells to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the acetylation of MDH1 dramatically enhanced its enzymatic activity and subsequently increased the intracellular levels of NADPH. These results clearly suggest that adipogenic differentiation may be regulated by the acetylation of MDH1 and that the acetylation of MDH1 is one of the cross-talk mechanisms between adipogenesis and the intracellular energy level.
"In a recent study, Kim et al. (2012) found that increased acetylation of MDH-1 during adipogenesis dramatically enhanced its enzymatic activity. They proposed that this activity supports acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and NADPH in lipid synthesis by accelerating the citrate shuttle and that MDH-1 performs a key function as cross-talk mechanism between lipid synthesis and intracellular energy levels (Kim et al. 2012). The observed differences in relative body condition index of fin whale individuals with and without the fast MDH-1 electromorph does point to a link between MDH-1 and fin whale body condition. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The appeal of genetic inference methods to assess population genetic structure and guide management efforts is grounded in the correlation between the genetic similarity and gene flow among populations. Effects of such gene flow are typically genomewide; however, some loci may appear as outliers, displaying above or below average genetic divergence relative to the genomewide level. Above average population, genetic divergence may be due to divergent selection as a result of local adaptation. Consequently, substantial efforts have been directed toward such outlying loci in order to identify traits subject to local adaptation. Here, we report the results of an investigation into the molecular basis of the substantial degree of genetic divergence previously reported at allozyme loci among North Atlantic fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) populations. We sequenced the exons encoding for the two most divergent allozyme loci (MDH-1 and MPI) and failed to detect any nonsynonymous substitutions. Following extensive error checking and analysis of additional bioinformatic and morphological data, we hypothesize that the observed allozyme polymorphisms may reflect phenotypic plasticity at the cellular level, perhaps as a response to nutritional stress. While such plasticity is intriguing in itself, and of fundamental evolutionary interest, our key finding is that the observed allozyme variation does not appear to be a result of genetic drift, migration, or selection on the MDH-1 and MPI exons themselves, stressing the importance of interpreting allozyme data with caution. As for North Atlantic fin whale population structure, our findings support the low levels of differentiation found in previous analyses of DNA nucleotide loci.
Ecology and Evolution 05/2014; 4(10):1787-1803. DOI:10.1002/ece3.1046 · 2.32 Impact Factor
"Lipid droplets of differentiating or mature brown adipocytes were stained by an Oil-red O staining method, as described previously (17-20). For a quantification analysis, the Oil-red O staining dye was extracted and quantified, as previously described (18,19). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a correlation between obesity and the amount of brown adipose tissue; however, the molecular mechanism of brown adipogenic differentiation has not been as extensively studied. In this study, we performed a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) profiling analysis during the brown adipogenic differentiation of mouse primary brown preadipocytes. Several PTPs, including PTPRF, PTPRZ, and DUSP12 showing differential expression patterns were identified. In the case of DUSP12, the expression level is dramatically downregulated during brown adipogenesis. The ectopic expression of DUSP12 using a retroviral expression system induces the suppression of adipogenic differentiation, whereas a catalytic inactive DUSP12 mutant showed no effect on differentiation. These results suggest that DUSP12 is involved in brown adipogenic differentiation and may be used as a target protein for the treatment or prevention of obesity by the regulation of brown adipogenic differentiation.
"For virus production, GP2-293 cell lines were transfected using Lipofectamine 2000 (Gibco-Invitrogen ). The details of the transfection and transduction methods are described in our previous reports . Infected cells were selected using a FACSAria cell sorter (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and were further maintained in a growth medium. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we identified proteins showing a differential acetylation pattern during adipogenic differentiation. Here, we examined the role of malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) acetylation in the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The acetylation level of MDH2 showed a dramatic increase during adipogenesis. The overexpression of wild-type MDH2 induced the significant acceleration of adipogenic differentiation. On the other hand, the acetylation-block mutant MDH2 showed significantly reduced adipogenic differentiation compared to the wild type. MDH2 acetylation enhances its enzymatic activity and consequently intracellular NADPH level. These results suggest that the acetylation of MDH2 was affected by the cellular energy state and subsequently regulated adipogenic differentiation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2013; 441(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.10.016 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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