Resistance of glioblastoma-initiating cells to radiation mediated by the tumor microenvironment can be abolished by inhibiting transforming growth factor-β.
ABSTRACT The poor prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) routinely treated with ionizing radiation (IR) has been attributed to the relative radioresistance of glioma-initiating cells (GIC). Other studies indicate that although GIC are sensitive, the response is mediated by undefined factors in the microenvironment. GBM produce abundant transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a pleotropic cytokine that promotes effective DNA damage response. Consistent with this, radiation sensitivity, as measured by clonogenic assay of cultured murine (GL261) and human (U251, U87MG) glioma cell lines, increased by approximately 25% when treated with LY364947, a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor kinase, before irradiation. Mice bearing GL261 flank tumors treated with 1D11, a pan-isoform TGF-β neutralizing antibody, exhibited significantly increased tumor growth delay following IR. GL261 neurosphere cultures were used to evaluate GIC. LY364947 had no effect on the primary or secondary neurosphere-forming capacity. IR decreased primary neurosphere formation by 28%, but did not reduce secondary neurosphere formation. In contrast, LY364947 treatment before IR decreased primary neurosphere formation by 75% and secondary neurosphere formation by 68%. Notably, GL261 neurospheres produced 3.7-fold more TGF-β per cell compared with conventional culture, suggesting that TGF-β production by GIC promotes effective DNA damage response and self-renewal, which creates microenvironment-mediated resistance. Consistent with this, LY364947 treatment in irradiated GL261 neurosphere-derived cells decreased DNA damage responses, H2AX and p53 phosphorylation, and induction of self-renewal signals, Notch1 and CXCR4. These data motivate the use of TGF-β inhibitors with radiation to improve therapeutic response in patients with GBM.
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly primary brain malignancy. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into tumor lineages, are believed to cause tumor recurrence due to their resistance to current therapies. A subset of GSCs is marked by cell surface expression of CD133, a glycosylated pentaspan transmembrane protein. The study of CD133-expressing GSCs has been limited by the relative paucity of genetic tools that specifically target them. Here, we present CD133-LV, a lentiviral vector presenting a single chain antibody against CD133 on its envelope, as a vehicle for the selective transduction of CD133-expressing GSCs. We show that CD133-LV selectively transduces CD133+ human GSCs in dose-dependent manner and that transduced cells maintain their stem-like properties. The transduction efficiency of CD133-LV is reduced by an antibody that recognizes the same epitope on CD133 as the viral envelope and by shRNA-mediated knockdown of CD133. Conversely, the rate of transduction by CD133-LV is augmented by overexpression of CD133 in primary human GBM cultures. CD133-LV selectively transduces CD133-expressing cells in intracranial human GBM xenografts in NOD.SCID mice, but spares normal mouse brain tissue, neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells and primary human astrocytes. Our findings indicate that CD133-LV represents a novel tool for the selective genetic manipulation of CD133-expressing GSCs, and can be used to answer important questions about how these cells contribute to tumor biology and therapy resistance.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e116114. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas (GBM) are some bad prognosis brain tumors despite a conventional treatment associating surgical resection and subsequent radio-chemotherapy. Among these heterogeneous tumors, a subpopulation of chemo- and radioresistant GBM stem-like cells appears to be involved in the systematic GBM recurrence. Moreover, recent studies showed that differentiated tumor cells may have the ability to dedifferentiate and acquire a stem-like phenotype, a phenomenon also called plasticity, in response to microenvironment stresses such as hypoxia. We hypothesized that GBM cells could be subjected to a similar dedifferentiation process after ionizing radiations (IRs), then supporting the GBM rapid recurrence after radiotherapy. In the present study we demonstrated that subtoxic IR exposure of differentiated GBM cells isolated from patient resections potentiated the long-term reacquisition of stem-associated properties such as the ability to generate primary and secondary neurospheres, the expression of stemness markers and an increased tumorigenicity. We also identified during this process an upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin and we showed that its specific downregulation led to the blockade of the IR-induced plasticity. Altogether, these results demonstrated that irradiation could regulate GBM cell dedifferentiation via a survivin-dependent pathway. Targeting the mechanisms associated with IR-induced plasticity will likely contribute to the development of some innovating pharmacological strategies for an improved radiosensitization of these aggressive brain cancers.Cell Death & Disease 11/2014; 5:e1543. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is a well-known master regulator of cellular proliferation and is a critical factor in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. TGFβ is classically defined as a tumor suppressor that functions in the early stages of carcinogenesis, yet paradoxically it functions as a tumor promoter in established cancers. Less well studied is its role in maintaining genomic stability through its participation in the DNA damage response (DDR). Deletion of Tgfb1 in murine epithelium increases genomic instability (GIN) as measured by gene amplification, aneuploidy, and centrosome aberrations; likewise, GIN is increased by depleting the TGFβ ligand or inhibiting TGFβ pathway signaling in human epithelial cells. Subsequent studies demonstrated that TGFβ depletion compromises cell survival in response to radiation and impairs activation of the DDR because of severely reduced activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a serine/threonine protein kinase that is rapidly activated by DNA double-strand breaks. The SMAD transcription factors are intermediaries in the crosstalk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways in the DDR. Recent studies have shown that SMAD2 and SMAD7 participate in the DDR in a manner dependent on ATM or TGFβ receptor type I, respectively, in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Understanding the role of TGFβ in the DDR and suppressing GIN is important to understanding its seemingly paradoxical roles in tumorigenesis and thus has therapeutic implications for improving the response to DNA damage-inducing therapy.Science Signaling 09/2014; 7(341):re5. · 7.65 Impact Factor