Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials of central nervous system directed therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
ABSTRACT Treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) is an essential therapy component for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Individual patient data from 47 trials addressing 16 CNS treatment comparisons were analyzed. Event-free survival (EFS) was similar for radiotherapy versus intrathecal (IT), and radiotherapy plus IT versus IV methotrexate (IV MTX) plus IT. Triple intrathecal therapy (TIT) gave similar EFS but poorer survival than intrathecal methotrexate (IT MTX), but additional IV MTX improved both outcomes. One trial resulted in similar EFS and survival with IV MTX plus IT MTX versus TIT alone. Radiotherapy can generally be replaced by IT therapy. TIT should be used with effective systemic therapy such as IV MTX. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Concern about late adverse effects of cranial radiotherapy (XRT) has led to alternative approaches to eliminate leukaemia from the central nervous system (CNS) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The Medical Research Council UKALL XI trial recruited 2090 children with ALL between 1990 and 1997. Median follow-up is 7 years 9 months; event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival were 63.1% and 84.6%, respectively, at 5 years and 59.8% and 79.4% at 10 years. The isolated CNS relapse rate was 7.0% at 10 years. Patients were randomized for CNS-directed therapy within white blood cell (WBC) groups. For WBC <50 x 10(9)/l, high-dose intravenous methotrexate (HDMTX) (6-8 g/m2) with intrathecal methotrexate (ITMTX) was compared with ITMTX alone, and was significantly better at preventing isolated and combined CNS relapse, but non-CNS relapses were similar. There was no significant difference in EFS at 10 years, 64.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 60.4-67.8] with HDMTX plus ITMTX, and 63.0% (95% CI 59.5-66.5) with ITMTX alone. For WBC >/=50 x 10(9)/l, HDMTX with ITMTX was compared with XRT and a short course of ITMTX. CNS relapses were significantly fewer with XRT, but there was a non-significant increase in non-CNS relapses. EFS was not significantly different, being 55.2% (95% CI 47.8-62.6) at 10 years with XRT and 52.1% (95% CI 44.8-59.4) with HDMTX plus ITMTX.British Journal of Haematology 02/2004; 124(1):33-46. · 4.94 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were randomized to one of two treatment options for CNS prophylaxis. All patients received intrathecal therapy over a one-year period with methotrexate, hydrocortisone and cytosine arabinoside. One-half of the patients also received 2400 rad cranial radiation over 2 1/2 weeks. There was no significant difference in CNS relapse rate, length of hematologic remission or survival between the two groups. No further CNS relapses have been observed for the last four years. CNS relapse was associated with subsequent disease recurrence in the 67% of patients.Cancer 10/1982; 50(6):1031-6. · 5.20 Impact Factor
Article: Intrathecal triple therapy decreases central nervous system relapse but fails to improve event-free survival when compared with intrathecal methotrexate: results of the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 1952 study for standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, reported by the Children's Oncology Group.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 1952 clinical trial for children with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SR-ALL) compared intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX) with IT triples (ITT) (MTX, cytarabine, and hydrocortisone sodium succinate [HSS]) as presymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) treatment. Following remission induction, 1018 patients were randomized to receive IT MTX and 1009 ITT. Multivariate analysis identified male sex, hepatomegaly, CNS-2 status, and age younger than 2 or older than 6 years as significant predictors of isolated CNS (iCNS) relapse. The 6-year cumulative incidence estimates of iCNS relapse are 3.4% +/- 1.0% for ITT and 5.9% +/- 1.2% for IT MTX; P = .004. Significantly more relapses occurred in bone marrow (BM) and testicles with ITT than IT MTX, particularly among patients with T-cell phenotype or day 14 BM aspirate containing 5% to 25% blasts. Thus, the estimated 6-year event-free survivals (EFS) with ITT or IT MTX are equivalent at 80.7% +/- 1.9% and 82.5% +/- 1.8%, respectively (P = .3). Because the salvage rate after BM relapse is inferior to that after CNS relapse, the 6-year overall survival (OS) for ITT is 90.3% +/- 1.5% versus 94.4% +/- 1.1% for IT MTX (P = .01). It appears that ITT improves presymptomatic CNS treatment but does not improve overall outcome.Blood 09/2006; 108(4):1165-73. · 9.06 Impact Factor