Regulatory dendritic cells program B cells to differentiate into CD19hiFcγIIbhi regulatory B cells through IFN-β and CD40L.
ABSTRACT Regulatory dendritic cells (DCs) play important roles in the induction of peripheral tolerance and control of adaptive immune response. Our previous studies demonstrate that splenic stroma can drive mature DCs to proliferate and further differentiate into a unique subset of CD11b(hi)Ia(low) regulatory DCs, which could inhibit T-cell response, program generation of immunosuppressive memory CD4 T cells. However, the effect of regulatory DCs on B-cell function remains unclear. Here, we report that regulatory DCs can induce splenic B cells to differentiate into a distinct subtype of IL-10-producing regulatory B cells with unique phenotype CD19(hi)FcγIIb(hi). CD19(hi)FcγIIb(hi) B cells inhibit CD4 T-cell response via IL-10. CD19(hi)FcγIIb(hi) B cells have enhanced phagocytic capacity compared with conventional CD19(+) B cells, and FcγRIIb mediates the uptake of immune complex by CD19(hi)FcγIIb(hi) B cells. We found that regulatory DC-derived IFN-β and CD40 ligand are responsible for the differentiation of CD19(hi)FcγIIb(hi) B cells. Furthermore, an in vivo counterpart of CD19(hi)FcγIIb(hi) B cells in the spleen and lymph nodes with similar phenotype and regulatory function has been identified. Our results demonstrate a new manner for regulatory DCs to down-regulate immune response by, at least partially, programming B cells into regulatory B cells.
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ABSTRACT: Systemic autoimmune diseases can damage nearly every tissue or cell type of the body. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, current therapies have not been improved, remain unspecific and are associated with significant side effects. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in promoting immune tolerance against self-antigens (self-Ags), current efforts are focusing at generating new therapies based on the transfer of tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) during autoimmunity. However, the feasibility of this approach during systemic autoimmunity has yet to be evaluated. TolDCs may ameliorate autoimmunity mainly by restoring T cell tolerance and, thus, indirectly modulating autoantibody development. In vitro induction of tolDCs loaded with immunodominant self-Ags and subsequent cell transfer to patients would be a specific new therapy that will avoid systemic immunosuppression. Herein, we review recent approaches evaluating the potential of tolDCs for the treatment of systemic autoimmune disorders.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(9):16381-16417. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most ligands from the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily play very important roles in the immune system, and particularly so in B lymphocyte biology. TNF ligands are essential to many aspects of normal B cell biology from development in the bone marrow to maturation in the periphery as well as for activation and differentiation into germinal centre, memory or plasma cells. TNF ligands also influence other aspects of B cell biology such as their ability to present antigens or regulate immune responses. Importantly, inadequate regulation of many TNF ligands is associated with B cell disorders including autoimmunity and cancers. As a result, inhibitors of a number of TNF ligands have been tested in the clinic, with some becoming very successful approved treatments alleviating B cell-mediated pathologies.Seminars in Immunology 07/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In transplantation immunology, the ultimate goal is always to successfully and specifically induce immune tolerance of allografts. Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tol-DCs) with immunoregulatory functions have attracted much attention as they play important roles in inducing and maintaining immune tolerance. Here, we focused on tol-DCs that have the potential to promote immune tolerance after solid-organ transplantation. We focus on their development and interactions with other regulatory cells, and we also explore various tol-DC engineering protocols. Harnessing tol-DCs represents a promising cellular therapy for promoting long-term graft functional survival in transplant recipients that will most likely be achieved in the future.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.52.Cellular & molecular immunology. 08/2014;