Successful regional delivery and long-term expression of a dystrophin gene in canine muscular dystrophy: a preclinical model for human therapies.

Program in Transplantation Biology, Division of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
Molecular Therapy (Impact Factor: 6.43). 06/2012; 20(8):1501-7. DOI: 10.1038/mt.2012.111
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked muscle disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene replacement strategies hold promise as a treatment. Studies in animal models and human trials suggested that immune responses to AAV capsid proteins and transgene products prevented efficient gene therapy. In this study, we used widespread intramuscular (i.m.) injection to deliver AAV6-canine micro-dystrophin (c-µdys) throughout a group of skeletal muscles in dystrophic dogs given a brief course of commonly used immunosuppressants. Robust c-µdys expression was obtained for at least two years and was associated with molecular reconstitution of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) at the muscle membrane. Importantly, c-µdys expression was maintained for at least 18 months after discontinuing immunosuppression. The results obtained in a relevant preclinical model of DMD demonstrate feasibility of widespread AAV-mediated muscle transduction and transgene expression in the presence of transient immunosuppression to achieve molecular reconstitution that can be directly translated to human trials.

  • Gene and Cell Therapy: Therapeutic Mechanisms and Strategies, Fourth edited by Templeton, 01/2015: chapter 41; Taylor & Francis/CRC Press., ISBN: 978-1-4665-7199-0
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are one of the most efficient in vivo gene delivery platforms. Over the past decade, clinical trials of AAV vector-mediated gene transfer led to some of the most exciting results in the field of gene therapy and, recently, to the market approval of an AAV-based drug in Europe. With clinical development, however, it became obvious that the host immune system represents an important obstacle to successful gene transfer with AAV vectors. In this review article, we will discuss the issue of cytotoxic T cell responses directed against the AAV capsid encountered on human studies. While over the past several years the field has acquired a tremendous amount of information on the interactions of AAV vectors with the immune system, a lot of questions are still unanswered. Novel concepts are emerging, such as the relationship between the total capsid dose and the T cell-mediated clearance of transduced cells, the potential role of innate immunity in vector immunogenicity highlighted in preclinical studies, and the cross talk between regulatory and effector T cells in the determination of the outcome of gene transfer. There is still a lot to learn about immune responses in AAV gene transfer, for example, it is not well understood what are the determinants of the kinetics of activation of T cells in response to vector administration, why not all subjects develop detrimental T cell responses following gene transfer, and whether the intervention strategies currently in use to block T cell-mediated clearance of transduced cells will be safe and effective for all gene therapy indications. Results from novel preclinical models and clinical studies will help to address these points and to reach the important goal of developing safe and effective gene therapy protocols to treat human diseases.
    Frontiers in Immunology 07/2014; 5:350. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00350
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations in dystrophin lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which is among the most common human genetic disorders. Dystrophin nucleates assembly of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), and a defective DGC disrupts an essential link between the intracellular cytoskeleton and the basal lamina, leading to progressive muscle wasting. In vitro studies have suggested that dystrophin phosphorylation may affect interactions with actin or syntrophin, yet whether this occurs in vivo or affects protein function remains unknown. Utilizing nanoflow liquid chromatography mass spectrometry we identified 18 phosphorylated residues within endogenous dystrophin. Mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation at S3059 enhances the dystrophin-dystroglycan interaction and 3D modeling utilizing the Rosetta software program provided a structural model for how phosphorylation enhances this interaction. These findings demonstrate that phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating the interaction between dystrophin and the DGC and reveal that post-translational modification of a single amino acid directly modulates the function of dystrophin.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2014; 23(25). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu388 · 6.68 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 19, 2014