Successful regional delivery and long-term expression of a dystrophin gene in canine muscular dystrophy: a preclinical model for human therapies.
ABSTRACT Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked muscle disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene replacement strategies hold promise as a treatment. Studies in animal models and human trials suggested that immune responses to AAV capsid proteins and transgene products prevented efficient gene therapy. In this study, we used widespread intramuscular (i.m.) injection to deliver AAV6-canine micro-dystrophin (c-µdys) throughout a group of skeletal muscles in dystrophic dogs given a brief course of commonly used immunosuppressants. Robust c-µdys expression was obtained for at least two years and was associated with molecular reconstitution of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) at the muscle membrane. Importantly, c-µdys expression was maintained for at least 18 months after discontinuing immunosuppression. The results obtained in a relevant preclinical model of DMD demonstrate feasibility of widespread AAV-mediated muscle transduction and transgene expression in the presence of transient immunosuppression to achieve molecular reconstitution that can be directly translated to human trials.
- SourceAvailable from: Wendy Leisenring[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Postgrafting cyclosporine (CSP) given for 35 days resulted in establishment of stable marrow grafts from DLA-identical canine littermates after otherwise suboptimal, but nevertheless, lethal conditioning with 450 cGy of total body irradiation (TBI). We now asked whether sustained allografts could be achieved after sublethal TBI or without TBI. Five groups of recipients were studied. Dogs in group 1 were given 200 cGy TBI and postgrafting CSP, 15 mg/kg twice daily by mouth on days -1 to 35 posttransplant. Dogs in group 2 were given 200 cGy TBI and methotrexate (MTX), 0.4 mg/kg intravenously (I.V.) on days 1, 3, 6, and 11 along with CSP. Dogs in group 3 were given 200 cGy TBI and CSP along with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), 10 mg/kg twice daily subcutaneously (S.C.) on days 0 to 27 after transplant, a novel immunosuppressive combination. Dogs in group 4 were given 100 cGy TBI and MMF/CSP. Dogs in group 5 were not given TBI and they received MMF/CSP posttransplant. Allografts were assessed by (Ca)n dinucleotide repeat polymorphism studies in cells from peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and marrow. Dogs in group 1 had transient mixed donor-host hematopoietic chimerism for no more than 4 weeks. Three of six dogs in group 2 had transient mixed chimerism for 3 to 11 weeks, and three have remained stable mixed chimeras for up to 60 weeks now. Four of five dogs in group 3 have remained stable mixed chimeras for 54 to 57 weeks now, while one lost the allograft after 12 weeks. All dogs in groups 4 and 5 rejected their allografts after 2 to 12 weeks. In summary, the establishment of stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism following nonmyelosuppressive and nontoxic conditioning programs has remained a difficult goal. Here we present evidence in a large random-bred animal species that this goal may be achievable with pharmacological immunosuppression postgrafting, capable of inhibiting both host-versus-graft (HVG) and graft-versus-host (GVH) reactions in the setting of DLA-identical grafts.Blood 05/1997; 89(8):3048-54. · 9.06 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A large and complex gene on the X chromosome encodes dystrophin. Many mutations have been described in this gene, most of which affect the expression of the muscle isoform, the best-known protein product of this locus. These mutations result in the Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD). However, there are several other tissue specific isoforms of dystrophin, some exclusively or predominantly expressed in the brain or the retina. Mutations affecting the correct expression of these tissue-specific isoforms have been associated with the CNS involvement common in DMD. Rare mutations also account for the allelic disorder X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy, in which dystrophin expression or function is affected mostly or exclusively in the heart. Genotype definition of the dystrophin gene in patients with dystrophinopathies has taught us much about functionally important domains of the protein itself and has provided insights into several regulatory mechanisms governing the gene expression profile. Here, we focus on current understanding of the genotype-phenotype relation for mutations in the dystrophin gene and their implications for gene functions.The Lancet Neurology 01/2004; 2(12):731-40. · 23.92 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The stoichiometry, cellular location, glycosylation, and hydrophobic properties of the components in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex were examined. The 156, 59, 50, 43, and 35 kd dystrophin-associated proteins each possess unique antigenic determinants, enrich quantitatively with dystrophin, and were localized to the skeletal muscle sarcolemma. The 156, 50, 43, and 35 kd dystrophin-associated proteins contained Asn-linked oligosaccharides. The 156 kd dystrophin-associated glycoprotein contained terminally sialylated Ser/Thr-linked oligosaccharides. Dystrophin, the 156 kd, and the 59 kd dystrophin-associated proteins were found to be peripheral membrane proteins, while the 50 kd, 43 kd, and 35 kd dystrophin-associated glycoproteins and the 25 kd dystrophin-associated protein were confirmed as integral membrane proteins. These results demonstrate that dystrophin and its 59 kd associated protein are cytoskeletal elements that are tightly linked to a 156 kd extracellular glycoprotein by way of a complex of transmembrane proteins.Cell 10/1991; 66(6):1121-31. · 31.96 Impact Factor