Atypical Cribriform Lesions of the Prostate: Clinical Significance, Differential Diagnosis and Current Concept of Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate
ABSTRACT Atypical cribriform lesions of the prostate gland consist of cribriform and rarely solid proliferation of prostate glands populated with cytologically atypical cells with partial or complete basal cell lining. It may represent cribriform "high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia" (HGPIN) or "intraductal carcinoma of the prostate" (IDC-P). IDC-P is almost always associated with clinically aggressive and high-volume prostate carcinoma. In contrast, cribriform HGPIN is a putative neoplastic precursor lesion, and recent data have questioned whether HGPIN on needle biopsy is associated with a significantly increased cancer risk in subsequent biopsies, and whether the diagnosis mandates rebiopsy within the first year after its diagnosis. As the result, the distinction between these 2 lesions has profound clinical implications, especially on needle biopsies. Since its original description, several studies have attempted to further refine histologic definition of IDC-P in the past decade. Even though presence of certain morphologic features (eg, pleomorphic nuclei or nuclei 6× the size of adjacent nuclei, intraluminal necrosis, and dense cribriform and solid architecture) are seen only in IDC-P, IDC-P may also exhibit "low-grade" morphologic features that overlap with cribriform HGPIN. Emerging molecular data on TMPRSS:ERG gene fusions further support the fact that these 2 lesions are biologically distinct. IDC-P is an uncommon finding in prostate biopsies; however, patients with IDC-P as sole findings without concomitant prostate carcinoma in biopsy are recommended for either definitive treatment or immediate repeat biopsy. This article summarizes the morphologic and molecular characteristics of IDC-P and cribriform HGPIN and an approach to work-up of atypical cribriform lesions in prostate needle biopsies.
European Urology 09/2014; 67(3). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.08.060 · 12.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) has been described as a lesion associated with intraductal spread of invasive carcinoma and consequently aggressive disease. However, there are a few reported cases of pure IDC-P without an associated invasive component, strongly suggesting that this subset of IDC-P may represent a precursor lesion. We compared the clinicopathological features between the morphologically "regular type" IDC-P and "precursor-like" IDC-P. IDC-P was defined as follows; 1) solid/dense cribriform lesions or 2) loose cribriform/micropapillary lesions with prominent nuclear pleomorphism and/or non-focal comedonecrosis. We defined precursor-like IDC-P as follows; 1) IDC-P without adjoining invasive adenocarcinoma but carcinoma present distant from the IDC-P or 2) IDC-P having adjoining invasive microcarcinoma (less than 0.05 ml) and showing a morphologic transition from high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) to the IDC-P. IDC-P lacking the features of precursor-like IDC-P was categorized as regular type IDC-P. Of 901 radical prostatectomies performed at our hospital, 141 and 14 showed regular type IDC-P and precursor-like IDC-P in whole-mounted specimens, respectively. Regular type IDC-P cases had significantly higher Gleason score, more frequent extraprostatic extension and seminal vesicle invasion, more advanced pathological T stage, and lower 5-year biochemical recurrence-free rate than precursor-like IDC-P cases. Multivariate analysis revealed nodal metastasis and the presence of regular type IDC-P as independent predictors for biochemical recurrence. Our data suggest that IDC-P may be heterogeneous with variable clinicopathological features. We also suggest that not all IDC-P cases represent intraductal spread of pre-existing invasive cancer, and a subset of IDC-P may be a precursor lesion.
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ABSTRACT: Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) are two distinct intraductal lesions; the former is usually associated to invasive carcinoma and has an aggressive course while the latter is considered a precancerous lesion. In addition, there are morphologically not well characterized lesions that fall between IDC-P and HGPIN, consequently termed “atypical cribriform lesions (ACLs).” Using whole mounted radical prostatectomy specimens, we evaluated the relationship between these intraductal proliferative lesions and clinicopathological parameters. In this study, ACLs were characterized as a loose cribriform intraductal proliferation with greater architectural complexity when compared to HGPIN, but lacking significant nuclear pleomorphism and/or comedonecrosis. Of 901 radical prostatectomies (2006-2012), IDC-P, ACL, and HGPIN were recorded in 155, 22, 436 cases, respectively. Patients with IDC-P showed more aggressive pathologic features when compared to HGPIN. Invasive cancers in patients with ACL had higher Gleason score (P = 0.00016), larger tumor volume (P = 0.025), and more advanced pT stage (P = 0.023) than those with HGPIN. Cases with ACL showed a higher risk of biochemical recurrence than those with HGPIN and a lower risk than those with IDC-P based on log-rank tests. (P = 0.0045 and P = 0.0069, respectively). In multivariate analysis, the presence of HGPIN was identified as an independent predictor for infrequent biochemical recurrence (P = 0.0058). We confirmed IDC-P as a marker of adverse pathologic features and clinical aggressiveness. Our results suggest that ACL should be distinguished from HGPIN and these lesions mandate active clinical surveillance.Human pathology 08/2014; 45(8). DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2014.03.011 · 2.81 Impact Factor