Liver biopsy in modern clinical practice: a pediatric point-of-view.
ABSTRACT Liver biopsy remains the foundation of evaluation and management of liver disease in children, although the role of the liver biopsy is changing with development of alternative methods of diagnosis and advancement of hepatic imaging techniques. The indications for liver biopsy are evolving as current knowledge of etiologies, noninvasive biomarker alternatives, and treatment options in pediatric liver disease are expanding. The procedure can often be complicated in children by technical difficulties, cost, and smaller specimen size. Communication and partnership of clinicians with pathologists experienced in pediatric liver diseases are essential. DNA sequencing, novel imaging modalities, noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis and apoptosis, proteomics, and genome-wide association studies offer potential alternative methods for evaluation of liver disease in children. This review presents specific indications, considerations, methods, complications, contraindications, and alternatives for pediatric liver biopsy.
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ABSTRACT: Objetivos caracterizar o perfil clínico, laboratorial e antropométrico de uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com doença de depósito de glicogênio tipo I tratados em um ambulatório de referência para erros inatos do metabolismo. Métodos este foi um estudo ambulatorial transversal com base em uma estratégia de amostragem de conveniência. Foram avaliados os dados com relação ao diagnóstico, tratamento, parâmetros antropométricos e acompanhamento. Resultados foram incluídos 21 pacientes (idade média de 10 anos, faixa 1-25 anos de idade), e todos se encontravam em terapia de amido de milho cru. A idade média na época do diagnóstico foi de sete meses (faixa, 1-32 meses), e 19 pacientes foram submetidos a biópsia hepática para confirmação do diagnóstico. Sobrepeso, baixa estatura, hepatomegalia e nódulos hepáticos foram fatores presentes em 16 de 21, quatro de 21, nove de 14 e três de 14 pacientes, respectivamente. Foi encontrada uma correlação entre os escores z para peso para idade e IMC para idade (r = 0,561; p = 0,008). Conclusões o diagnóstico da doença de depósito de glicogênio tipo I tem sido tardio no Brasil. A maioria dos pacientes foi submetida a confirmação do diagnóstico, apesar de o quadro clínico característico e os métodos moleculares poderem fornecer um diagnóstico definitivo de forma menos invasiva. Obesidade é um efeito colateral da terapia com amido de milho e parece estar associada a crescimento nesses pacientes.Jornal de Pediatria. 12/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the histological spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children with normal, mildly elevated (26-50 U/L boys, 23-44 U/L girls), or elevated (>50 U/L in boys, >44 U/L in girls) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Study design The Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network enrolls children aged 5-18 years with NAFLD. We analyzed baseline clinical and histological data from 91 children with suspected NAFLD and normal or mildly elevated ALT and liver biopsy analysis within 180 days of ALT measurement, and compared them with data from 392 children with elevated ALT. Results Seventeen of the 91 children with suspected NAFLD (19%) had a normal ALT level, and 74 (81%) had a mildly elevated ALT level. Overall, 45% of the biopsy specimens analyzed had steatosis ≥33%, 22% had grade ≥2 lobular inflammation, 81% had portal inflammation, 29% had ballooned hepatocytes, 35% had “suspicious/borderline” steatohepatitis, 8% had definite nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, 34% had an NAFLD activity score ≥4, and 46% had fibrosis (38% mild/moderate and 8% bridging/cirrhosis). Marked steatosis (50% vs 24%) and fibrosis (54% vs 12%) were significantly more common in the patients with mildly elevated ALT compared with those with normal ALT, with no difference in ballooning, inflammation, or NAFLD activity score ≥4 between the 2 groups. Fibrosis stage 3/4 was seen in none of the children with normal ALT, in 9% of those with mildly elevated ALT, and in 15% of those with elevated ALT. Conclusion Liver biopsy specimens from children with NAFLD with normal or mildly elevated ALT levels show significant histological abnormalities, including advanced fibrosis in children with mildly elevated ALT. Thus, measurement of ALT may underestimate liver injury in NAFLD. The use of appropriate ALT cutoff levels can help identify children at risk for more severe disease.The Journal of pediatrics 01/2014; 164(4):707–713.e3. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Liver biopsy is the standard procedure for obtaining hepatic tissue for histopathological examination. The three major techniques are percutaneous, transvenous, and laparoscopic/open biopsy, with either cutting or suction needles. The indications for liver biopsy are shifting as knowledge of etiologies, non-invasive biomarker alternatives, and treatment options in paediatric liver disease expand. This mini-review presents specific indications, alternative approaches, methods, complications, and contraindications for paediatric liver biopsy.Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology. 01/2014;