Self-reported dietary intake and appetite predict early treatment outcome among low-BMI adults initiating HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa

1Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
Public Health Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.68). 06/2012; 16(3):1-10. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980012002960
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Low BMI is a major risk factor for early mortality among HIV-infected persons starting antiretrovial therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa and the common patient belief that antiretroviral medications produce distressing levels of hunger is a barrier to treatment adherence. We assessed relationships between appetite, dietary intake and treatment outcome 12 weeks after ART initiation among HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition and immunosuppression. DESIGN: A prospective, observational cohort study. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall survey. The relationships of appetite, intake and treatment outcome were analysed using time-varying Cox models. SETTING: A public-sector HIV clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty-two HIV-infected adults starting ART with BMI <16 kg/m2 and/or CD4+ lymphocyte count <50 cells/μl. RESULTS: Median age, BMI and CD4+ lymphocyte count were 32 years, 16 kg/m2 and 34 cells/μl, respectively. Twenty-five participants (18 %) died before 12 weeks and another thirty-three (23 %) were lost to care. A 500 kJ/d higher energy intake at any time after ART initiation was associated with an approximate 16 % reduction in the hazard of death (adjusted hazard ratio = 0·84; P = 0·01), but the relative contribution of carbohydrate, protein or fat to total energy was not a significant predictor of outcome. Appetite normalized gradually among survivors and hunger was rarely reported. CONCLUSIONS: Poor early ART outcomes were strikingly high in a cohort of HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition and mortality was predicted by lower dietary intake. Intervention trials to promote post-ART intake in this population may benefit survival and are warranted.

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Available from: John R Koethe, Nov 07, 2014
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