Adhatoda vasica Nees: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile
ABSTRACT Adhatoda vasica Nees (Acanthaceace) is a well known medicinal plant from which certain alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, sterols and their glycoside derivatives have been isolated. Its diverse medicinal activities include cardiovascu-lar protection, abortifacient, antitubercular, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antiasthmatic activities, hepatoprotective, antibacte-rial and antitussive activities. It is commonly used in indigenous and traditional folk medicine system in South-East-Asia. An up-to-date data on phytochemical compositions and pharmacological properties of different parts of Adhatoda vasica are reviewed and commented in this article.
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ABSTRACT: Adhatoda vasica Nees. has been used in India for more than 2000 years. The drug contains leaf, stem, flower, fruit and seeds. The fruit which holds the most potentialof the herb is a small capsule with four seeds. No reports are available for the pharmacognostical study of the seed, hence the present study was undertaken to investigate the macroscopic, microscopic, powder microscopic, physicochemical, phytochemical analysis, TLC and HPTLC profile. The drug was mounted on FAA solution and sections were taken in rotary microtome, stained with toluidine blue; histochemical tests were observed. Loss on drying, total ash, water soluble and acid insoluble ash, water and alcohol soluble extractive were estimated as per WHO method. TLC/HPTLC studies were based on many trials to fix the better solvent system. The testa comprises outer sclerotesta of 40mm thick and inner sarcotesta. The parenchymatous zone is thin along the lateral part of the seed and it becomes wider and many layered at the chalazal end. The radicle is circular in sectional view which is 550 μm in diameter. Sarcotesta, cotyledons, oil bodies, starch grain and the sclerotesta which appears amoeboid in outline were observed in the powder microscopy. 3 spots under UV 254 nm, 4 spots each under 366 nm and after derivatization were observed in the TLC. 8 peaks at 254 nm, 2 peaks at 366 nm and 7 peaks at 540 nm were resolved in HPTLC. The results will be useful to establish the identification, authentication and practical application of the seed as an herbal drug.
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ABSTRACT: A novel protocol for indirect shoot organogenesis of Adhatoda vasica was developed using petiole explants derived from mature shrubby plants. Media with concentrations of cytokinins in combination with auxins were used to induce callus formation in two explants types: petiole and leaf segment. The frequency of callus formation from petiole and leaf segment explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 0.25 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.25 mg l(-1) α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was 100 ± 0.0 and 83.70 ± 0.52% respectively, while on this medium supplemented with 0.25 mg l(-1) 6-(γ-γ, dimethylallyamino purine) (2iP) and 0.25 mg l(-1) NAA, the callus frequency was 100 ± 0.0 and 96.70 ± 0.67% respectively. The highest shoot regeneration (90.60 ± 0.52%) response and the maximum shoots (8.10 ± 0.28) per callus were achieved from petiole explants on MS medium containing 0.25 mg l(-1) TDZ and 0.25 mg l(-1) NAA. On the contrary, on Schenk & Hildebrandt (SH) basal medium supplemented with 0.25 mg l(-1) TDZ and 0.25 mg l(-1) NAA, the frequency of callus formation from petiole and leaf segment explants was 100 ± 0.0 and 90.50 ± 0.89% respectively while the callus frequency on this medium containing 0.25 mg l(-1) 2iP and 0.25 mg l(-1) NAA was 100 ± 0.0 and 89.90 ± 0.72% respectively. The shoot regeneration frequency for petiole explants was 89.90 ± 0.46% producing 6.00 ± 0.21 shoots per callus on SH basal medium supplemented with 0.25 mg l(-1) TDZ and 0.25 mg l(-1) NAA. Whereas petiole explants could induce 83.70 ± 0.50% shoot regeneration and 7.3 ± 1.05 shoots per callus on SH medium containing 0.25 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 mg l(-1) 2iP. Elongation of regenerated shoot was obtained on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.25 mg l(-1) TDZ. All regenerated shoots developed adventitious roots within 4 weeks when transferred to rooting medium containing SH medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA. Total nine rooted plantlets were transferred from in vitro to in vivo conditions and eight plants survived and successfully acclimatized in the shaded greenhouse 12 weeks after transplanting.SpringerPlus 11/2014; 3:648. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-648