Periodontal Disease in Habitual Cigarette Smokers and Nonsmokers With and Without Prediabetes.
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION:: Prediabetes and habitual cigarette smoking are significant risk factors contributing to periodontal disease. The aim was to assess the clinical and radiological markers of periodontal disease in habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with and without prediabetes. METHODS:: Sixty-eight individuals with prediabetes (test group; 34 smokers and 34 nonsmokers) and 68 medically healthy individuals (control group; 34 smokers and 34 nonsmokers) were included. Sociodemographic information, duration of smoking habit and number of cigarettes smoked daily were recorded through a questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose levels and periodontal inflammatory conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP] and probing pocket depth [PPD] of 4 to <6 mm and ≥6 mm) were recorded. In both groups, marginal bone loss (MBL) was measured on digital panoramic radiographs. RESULTS:: Cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in the test group had significantly higher fasting blood glucose level when compared with cigarette smokers in the control group (P < 0.001). In the test group, there was no significant difference in PI, BOP, PPD (4 to <6 mm and ≥6 mm) and MBL among cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Cigarette smokers in the control group had significantly higher PI (P < 0.001), PPD (4 to <6 mm; P < 0.001), PPD ≥6 mm (P < 0.01) and MBL (P < 0.05) than nonsmokers. BOP was significantly reduced in smokers when compared with nonsmokers in the control group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: Cigarette smokers without prediabetes exhibit significantly severe periodontal disease than nonsmokers. In subjects with prediabetes, the severity of periodontal disease seems to be over shadowed by the hyperglycemic state, obscuring the effect of habitual smoking.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present short-term longitudinal randomized case-control study was to assess the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) (with and without oral doxycycline delivery) on glycemic status and clinical periodontal parameters in patients with prediabetes. Sixty-six patients with prediabetes and periodontal disease were included. Characteristics of the study cohort (age, gender, socioeconomic status [SES] education status, duration of prediabetes, and type of treatment adopted for prediabetes management) were recorded. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (33 patients/group). In group 1, scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed, and in group-2, patients underwent SRP and oral doxycycline (100 mg) administration once daily for 15 days. In each group, the following parameters were investigated at baseline and after 3 months: (a) fasting blood glucose level (FBGL), (b) hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and (c) periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], and clinical attachment loss [AL]). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. There was no significant difference in age, gender, SES, education status, and duration and treatment of prediabetes among individuals in groups 1 and 2. Three months post-NSPT, FBGL and HbA1c were significantly reduced among patients in group 1 (P < 0.05) and group 2 (P < 0.05) compared to baseline. Three months post-NSPT, PI (P < 0.05), BOP (P < 0.05), and PD (P < 0.05) were significantly reduced among patients in group 1 (P < 0.05) and group 2 (P < 0.05) compared to baseline. There was no difference in clinical AL between the groups after 3 months of NSPT. NSPT (with and without oral doxycycline delivery) reduces hyperglycemia and periodontal inflammation in patients with prediabetes.Clinical Oral Investigations 01/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to systematically review the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and periodontal disease. The addressed focused question was “Is there a relationship between ETS and periodontal disease?” PubMed/MEDLINE and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1987 up to March 2014 using different combinations of the following keywords: “Environmental tobacco smoke”, “passive”, “periodontal disease”, “secondhand” and “smoking”. Letters to the Editor, review articles, commentaries, case-reports and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Thirteen studies were included. Nine studies were clinical and 4 studies were performed in-vitro. Five studies reported the odds ratios for periodontal disease to be significantly higher among individuals exposed to ETS than controls (non-smoking individuals unexposed to ETS). In 2 studies, ETS exposure showed no association with periodontal disease. In 2 studies, salivary aspartate aminotransferase, lactoferrin and albumin levels were reported to be significantly higher in individuals exposed to ETS than controls. In one study, levels of salivary interleukin-1β were reported to be significantly higher in individuals exposed to ETS than controls. The in-vitro studies reported ETS exposure to enhance the production of proinflammatory proteins and phagocytic activity of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes thereby contributing to periodontal disease. The association between ETS and periodontal disease remains debatable and requires further investigations.Environmental Research 05/2014; · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and subepithelial connective tissue grafts (sCTG) in the treatment of Miller class I and II gingival recession (GR) defects. Six patients with eight GR sites were randomly assigned to the test group (GR defects treated with ADM) and control group (GR defects treated with sCTG). Recession height (RH) and width, probing depth, keratinized gingiva, clinical attachment level, and full mouth plaque and bleeding scores were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The differences in mean changes were insignificant between the two groups in all parameters. In both groups, improvements from baseline to 3 and 6 months were significant for mean RH reduction and clinical attachment gain. A significant increase in the mean keratinized gingiva width was observed in both groups at 3 and 6 months. ADM and sCTG yield similar outcomes when used in the treatment of GR defects.Journal of investigative and clinical dentistry. 02/2014;