Article

Periodontal Disease in Habitual Cigarette Smokers and Nonsmokers With and Without Prediabetes.

Engineer Abdullah Bugshan Research Chair for Growth Factors and Bone Regeneration (FJ, MA-A, KA-H), College of Applied Medical Sciences; Department of Periodontics and Community Dentistry (MA-A, KA-H), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; and Oral Biosciences (LPS), Faculty of Dentistry, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.33). 06/2012; DOI: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31824d5337
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION:: Prediabetes and habitual cigarette smoking are significant risk factors contributing to periodontal disease. The aim was to assess the clinical and radiological markers of periodontal disease in habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with and without prediabetes. METHODS:: Sixty-eight individuals with prediabetes (test group; 34 smokers and 34 nonsmokers) and 68 medically healthy individuals (control group; 34 smokers and 34 nonsmokers) were included. Sociodemographic information, duration of smoking habit and number of cigarettes smoked daily were recorded through a questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose levels and periodontal inflammatory conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP] and probing pocket depth [PPD] of 4 to <6 mm and ≥6 mm) were recorded. In both groups, marginal bone loss (MBL) was measured on digital panoramic radiographs. RESULTS:: Cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in the test group had significantly higher fasting blood glucose level when compared with cigarette smokers in the control group (P < 0.001). In the test group, there was no significant difference in PI, BOP, PPD (4 to <6 mm and ≥6 mm) and MBL among cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Cigarette smokers in the control group had significantly higher PI (P < 0.001), PPD (4 to <6 mm; P < 0.001), PPD ≥6 mm (P < 0.01) and MBL (P < 0.05) than nonsmokers. BOP was significantly reduced in smokers when compared with nonsmokers in the control group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: Cigarette smokers without prediabetes exhibit significantly severe periodontal disease than nonsmokers. In subjects with prediabetes, the severity of periodontal disease seems to be over shadowed by the hyperglycemic state, obscuring the effect of habitual smoking.

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