Spirulina and C-phycocyanin reduce cytotoxicity and inflammation-related genes expression of microglial cells.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the effects of Spirulina on BV-2 microglial cell cytotoxicity and inflammatory genes expression. METHODS: BV-2 microglial cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml) and various concentrations of Spirulina platensis water extract or its active component (C-phycocyanin (C-PC)) for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNAs were assayed. RESULTS: LPS increased LDH production and up-regulated expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 by BV-2 microglial cells. However, Spirulina platensis water extract and C-PC significantly reduced LPS-induced LDH release, and expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNAs. CONCLUSION: Spirulina can reduce the cytotoxicity and inhibit expression of inflammation-related genes of LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells.