Article

Are Increased Weight and Appetite Useful Indicators of Depression in Children and Adolescents?

Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.86). 06/2012; 121(4). DOI: 10.1037/a0028175
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During childhood and adolescence, physiological, psychological, and behavioral processes strongly promote weight gain and increased appetite while also inhibiting weight loss and decreased appetite. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) treats both weight-gain/increased-appetite and weight-loss/decreased-appetite as symptoms of major depression during these developmental periods, despite the fact that one complements typical development and the other opposes it. To disentangle the developmental versus pathological correlates of weight and appetite disturbance in younger age groups, the current study examined symptoms of depression in an aggregated sample of 2307 children and adolescents, 47.25% of whom met criteria for major depressive disorder. A multigroup, multidimensional item response theory model generated three key results. First, weight loss and decreased appetite loaded strongly onto a general depression dimension; in contrast, weight gain and increased appetite did not. Instead, weight gain and increased appetite loaded onto a separate dimension that did not correlate strongly with general depression. Second, inclusion or exclusion of weight gain and increased appetite affected neither the nature of the general depression dimension nor the fidelity of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Third, the general depression dimension and the weight-gain/increased-appetite dimension showed different patterns across age and gender. In child and adolescent populations, these results call into question the utility of weight gain and increased appetite as indicators of depression. This has serious implications for the diagnostic criteria of depression in children and adolescents. These findings inform a revision of the DSM, with implications for the diagnosis of depression in this age group and for research on depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

0 Followers
 · 
193 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of standardized hydroalcholic extract of Commiphora mukul (HECM) in animal model of chronic stress medicated depression, namely olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) model in rats. Effects of 14-day (subacute) oral pretreatment of HECM (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were evaluated on depression and stress related parameters on OBX rats. Separate groups for sham control, OBX control and positive controls namely imipramine (20 mg/kg), fluoxetine (30 mg/kg) and desipramine (15 mg/kg) were also maintained. Behavioral and physiological parameters in open field and elevated plus maze were recorded. HECM showed dose-dependent reversal of OBX-induced physiological effects such as reduction of body weight, body temperature, heart rate and serum sodium concentration. HECM also showed reversal effects on OBX induced food intake increase and hyperactivity in open field and elevated plus maze paradigm. In conclusion, HECM demonstrated restorative effects in OBX induced depression model in rats probably due to stress reliving mechanisms.
    Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 01/2015; 58(1):41-48. DOI:10.1590/S1516-8913201502627 · 0.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical disorders often share common symptoms and aetiological factors. Bifactor models acknowledge the role of an underlying general distress component and more specific sub-domains of psychopathology which specify the unique components of disorders over and above a general factor. A bifactor model jointly calibrated data on subjective distress from The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale. The bifactor model encompassed a general distress factor, and specific factors for (a) hopelessness-suicidal ideation, (b) generalised worrying and (c) restlessness-fatigue at age 14 which were related to lifetime clinical diagnoses established by interviews at ages 14 (concurrent validity) and current diagnoses at 17 years (predictive validity) in a British population sample of 1159 adolescents. Diagnostic interviews confirmed the validity of a symptom-level bifactor model. The underlying general distress factor was a powerful but non-specific predictor of affective, anxiety and behaviour disorders. The specific factors for hopelessness-suicidal ideation and generalised worrying contributed to predictive specificity. Hopelessness-suicidal ideation predicted concurrent and future affective disorder; generalised worrying predicted concurrent and future anxiety, specifically concurrent generalised anxiety disorders. Generalised worrying was negatively associated with behaviour disorders. The analyses of gender differences and the prediction of specific disorders was limited due to a low frequency of disorders other than depression. The bifactor model was able to differentiate concurrent and predict future clinical diagnoses. This can inform the development of targeted as well as non-specific interventions for prevention and treatment of different disorders.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2013; 152-154. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.029 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence of prodromal manifestation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). These affective symptoms may be observed many years before the core diagnostic symptoms of the neurological condition. It is becoming more apparent that depression is a significant modifying factor of the trajectory of disease progression and even treatment outcomes. It is therefore crucial that we understand the potential pathophysiologies related to the primary condition, which could contribute to the development of depression. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is a key neuroendocrine signaling system involved in physiological homeostasis and stress response. Disturbances of this system lead to severe hormonal imbalances, and the majority of such patients also present with behavioral deficits and/or mood disorders. Dysregulation of the HPA-axis is also strongly implicated in the pathology of major depressive disorder. Consistent with this, antidepressant drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to alter HPA-axis activity. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding HPA-axis pathology in Alzheimer's, PD and HD, differentiating between prodromal and later stages of disease progression when evidence is available. Both clinical and preclinical evidence will be examined, but we highlight animal model studies as being particularly useful for uncovering novel mechanisms of pathology related to co-morbid mood disorders. Finally, we purpose utilizing the preclinical evidence to better inform prospective, intervention studies.
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 01/2015; 6:32. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00032