Antimalarial activity of pyrroloiminoquinones from the Australian marine sponge Zyzzya sp.
ABSTRACT A new bispyrroloiminoquinone alkaloid, tsitsikammamine C (1), displayed potent in vitro antimalarial activity with IC(50) values of 13 and 18 nM against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. Tsitsikammamine C (1) displayed selectivity indices of >200 against HEK293 cells and inhibited both ring and trophozoite stages of the malaria parasite life cycle. Previously reported compounds makaluvamines J (2), G (3), L (4), K (5) and damirones A (6) and B (7) were also isolated from the same marine sponge (Zyzzya sp.). Compounds 2-4 displayed potent growth inhibitory activity (IC(50) < 100 nM) against both P. falciparum lines and only moderate cytotoxicity against HEK293 cells (IC(50) = 1-4 μM). Makaluvamine G (3) was not toxic to mice and suppressed parasite growth in P. berghei infected mice following subcutaneous administration at 8 mg kg(-1) day(-1).
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ABSTRACT: Tsitsikammamines are marine alkaloids whose structure is based on the pyrroloiminoquinone scaffold. These and related compounds have attracted attention due to various interesting biological properties, including cytotoxicity, topoisomerase inhibition, antimicrobial, antifungal and antimalarial activity. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) is a well-established therapeutic target as an important factor in the tumor immune evasion mechanism. In this preliminary communication, we report the inhibitory activity of tsitsikammamine derivatives against IDO1. Tsitsikammamine A analogue 11b displays submicromolar potency in an enzymatic assay. A number of derivatives are also active in a cellular assay while showing little or no activity towards tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), a functionally related enzyme. This IDO1 inhibitory activity is rationalized by molecular modeling studies. An interest is thus established in this class of compounds as a potential source of lead compounds for the development of new pharmaceutically useful IDO1 inhibitors.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 11/2012; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Marine trypanocidal natural products are, most often, reported with trypanocidal activity and selectivity against human cell lines. The triaging of hits requires a consideration of chemical tractability for drug development. We utilized a combined Lipinski's rule-of-five, chemical clustering and ChemGPS-NP principle analysis to analyze a set of 40 antitrypanosomal natural products for their drug like properties and chemical space. The analyses identified 16 chemical clusters with 11 well positioned within drug-like chemical space. This study demonstrated that our combined analysis can be used as an important strategy for prioritization of active marine natural products for further investigation.Marine Drugs 01/2014; 12(3):1169-84. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the period from January 1981 to December 2010, 1068 small-molecule new chemical entities (NCEs) were introduced, of which ca. 34% are either a natural product or a close analogue. While this metric reflects the impact natural products have played in delivering new chemical starting points (leads) for the pharmaceutical industry, it does not capture the decline this approach has suffered over the last 20 years as the high-throughput screening (HTS) of pure compound libraries has become more popular. An impediment to natural-product drug discovery in the HTS paradigm is the lack of a clear strategy that enables front-loading of an extract or fraction's chemical constituents so that they are compliant with lead- and drug-like chemical space. To address this imbalance, an approach based on lipophilicity, as measured by clog P has been developed that, together with advances being made in isolation and structural elucidation, can afford natural product leads in timelines compatible with pure compound screening.Chemistry & Biodiversity 04/2013; 10(4):524-37. · 1.81 Impact Factor