Nutritional factors and hypospadias risks.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5415, USA.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2.16). 07/2012; 26(4):353-60. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01272.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We examined whether hypospadias was associated with several aspects of the diet, including intake of animal products, intake of several nutrients and food groups related to a vegetarian diet and oestrogen metabolism, and diet quality.
The study included deliveries from 1997 to 2005 that were part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire during maternal telephone interviews, and two diet quality indices were developed based on existing indices. Analyses included 1250 cases with second- or third-degree hypospadias (urethra opened at the penile shaft, scrotum or perineum) and 3118 male, liveborn, non-malformed controls. All odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were estimated from logistic regression models that included several potential confounders, including energy intake.
Intake of animal products was not associated with hypospadias; for example, the adjusted OR for any vs. no intake of meat was 1.0 [95% CI 0.6, 1.6]. Frequency of intake of meat or other animal products was also not associated with hypospadias, nor was intake of iron or several nutrients that are potentially related to oestrogen metabolism. Diet quality was also not associated with hypospadias; the OR for diet quality in the highest vs. lowest quartile for the two diet quality indices were 1.0 [95% CI 0.6, 1.6] and 0.9 [95% CI 0.7, 1.1].
This large study does not support an association of a vegetarian diet or worse diet quality with hypospadias.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND In a recent study, high maternal periconceptional intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). To explore this association further, we investigated the association between total daily vitamin E intake and selected birth defects. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4525 controls and 8665 cases from the 1997 to 2005 National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We categorized estimated periconceptional energy-adjusted total daily vitamin E intake from diet and supplements into quartiles (referent, lowest quartile). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin E intake and selected birth defects were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant association with the third quartile of vitamin E intake (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.35) and all CHDs combined. Among CHD sub-types, we observed associations with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects, and its sub-type, coarctation of the aorta and the third quartile of vitamin E intake. Among defects other than CHDs, we observed associations between anorectal atresia and the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01–2.72) and hypospadias and the fourth quartile of vitamin E intake (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09–1.87). CONCLUSION: Selected quartiles of energy-adjusted estimated total daily vitamin E intake were associated with selected birth defects. However, because these few associations did not exhibit exposure-response patterns consistent with increasing risk associated with increasing intake of vitamin E, further studies are warranted to corroborate our findings. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 04/2014; 100(9). DOI:10.1002/bdra.23247 · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gastroschisis is unique because of its substantial risk in pregnancies of adolescent women. Adolescents may have poor diet quality, which places them at higher risk of gastroschisis.
    Journal of Nutrition 11/2014; 144(11):1781-6. DOI:10.3945/jn.114.201376 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Of interest is if factors like maternal diet can influence the risk of hypospadias-affected pregnancy. Increased propionylcarnitine (C3) is regarded as a biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency. The retrospective study was undertaken to determine whether increased propionylcarnitine and low methionine in newborns are associated with hypospadias. 41 newborns with hypospadias and 90 control newborns without congenital anomalies were investigated. Whole blood propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. The mean concentration of propionylcarnitine was higher in newborns with hypospadias compared with newborns without congenital anomalies (p = 0.026). The mean methionine level in cases was insignificantly lower than in controls. There appears to be an association between decreased vitamin B12, as indexed by an increase of propionylcarnitine, and hypospadias in the investigated group of patients.
    11/2013; 66(3):377-80. DOI:10.5173/ceju.2013.03.art36
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format