Nutritional Factors and Hypospadias Risks
Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5415, USA. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
(Impact Factor: 3.13).
07/2012; 26(4):353-60. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01272.x
We examined whether hypospadias was associated with several aspects of the diet, including intake of animal products, intake of several nutrients and food groups related to a vegetarian diet and oestrogen metabolism, and diet quality.
The study included deliveries from 1997 to 2005 that were part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire during maternal telephone interviews, and two diet quality indices were developed based on existing indices. Analyses included 1250 cases with second- or third-degree hypospadias (urethra opened at the penile shaft, scrotum or perineum) and 3118 male, liveborn, non-malformed controls. All odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were estimated from logistic regression models that included several potential confounders, including energy intake.
Intake of animal products was not associated with hypospadias; for example, the adjusted OR for any vs. no intake of meat was 1.0 [95% CI 0.6, 1.6]. Frequency of intake of meat or other animal products was also not associated with hypospadias, nor was intake of iron or several nutrients that are potentially related to oestrogen metabolism. Diet quality was also not associated with hypospadias; the OR for diet quality in the highest vs. lowest quartile for the two diet quality indices were 1.0 [95% CI 0.6, 1.6] and 0.9 [95% CI 0.7, 1.1].
This large study does not support an association of a vegetarian diet or worse diet quality with hypospadias.
Available from: Kamil K Hozyasz
- "Some experimental evidence exists in favor of the ameliorative effects of vitamin B12 on teratogen–induced congenital anomalies in rodents [13, 14]. However, results of human studies on periconceptional supplementation with cobalamin and other group B vitamins and occurrence of hypospadias, as well as association between mother's vegetarian diet and hypospadias are conflicting, which indicates the difficulty and complexity of a study of hypospadias [4, 5, 15]. The overwhelming majority of hypospadias cases remain unexplained and the birth defect may be a highly heterogeneous condition subject to multiple genetic and environmental factors. "
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ABSTRACT: Of interest is if factors like maternal diet can influence the risk of hypospadias-affected pregnancy. Increased propionylcarnitine (C3) is regarded as a biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency. The retrospective study was undertaken to determine whether increased propionylcarnitine and low methionine in newborns are associated with hypospadias.
41 newborns with hypospadias and 90 control newborns without congenital anomalies were investigated. Whole blood propionylcarnitine and methionine concentrations were measured using tandem mass spectrometry.
The mean concentration of propionylcarnitine was higher in newborns with hypospadias compared with newborns without congenital anomalies (p = 0.026). The mean methionine level in cases was insignificantly lower than in controls.
There appears to be an association between decreased vitamin B12, as indexed by an increase of propionylcarnitine, and hypospadias in the investigated group of patients.
Central European Journal of Urology 11/2013; 66(3):377-80. DOI:10.5173/ceju.2013.03.art36
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to review and comment on recent original presentations dealing with genetic and environmental factors in the cause of hypospadias.
The heritability is definitely high and having an affected family member is the highest identified risk factor so far. Many candidate genes and polymorphisms have been suggested for hypospadias. Some associations with hypospadias were found, and many of these were replicated inconsistently as would be expected in a complex disorder affected by both genes and environment. The consistent association of hypospadias with low birth weight, maternal hypertension, and preeclampsia suggests that placental insufficiency is a major risk factor. Maternal exposure to chemical pollutants or endocrine disruptors in high concentrations related to selected occupations or geographic areas may be additional risk factors for hypospadias, especially in genetically predisposed individuals. So far, however, no environmental chemical pollutants or endocrine disruptor with a general common impact on the risk for hypospadias in most societies has been demonstrated.
A major point that should be considered regarding the action of environmental toxicants in inducing hypospadias is the cumulative effects of multiple low-dose exposures. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and environmental factors may help to explain nonreplication in genetic studies of hypospadias.
Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 04/2014; 21(3). DOI:10.1097/MED.0000000000000063 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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In a recent study, high maternal periconceptional intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). To explore this association further, we investigated the association between total daily vitamin E intake and selected birth defects.
We analyzed data from 4525 controls and 8665 cases from the 1997 to 2005 National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We categorized estimated periconceptional energy-adjusted total daily vitamin E intake from diet and supplements into quartiles (referent, lowest quartile). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin E intake and selected birth defects were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors.
We observed a statistically significant association with the third quartile of vitamin E intake (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.35) and all CHDs combined. Among CHD sub-types, we observed associations with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects, and its sub-type, coarctation of the aorta and the third quartile of vitamin E intake. Among defects other than CHDs, we observed associations between anorectal atresia and the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.72) and hypospadias and the fourth quartile of vitamin E intake (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.87).
Selected quartiles of energy-adjusted estimated total daily vitamin E intake were associated with selected birth defects. However, because these few associations did not exhibit exposure-response patterns consistent with increasing risk associated with increasing intake of vitamin E, further studies are warranted to corroborate our findings.
Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 09/2014; 100(9). DOI:10.1002/bdra.23247 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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