Article

Using the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Multiantigen Sequence-Typing Method to Assess Strain Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance in San Francisco, California.

1 San Francisco Department of Public Health Laboratory, San Francisco, California.
Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) (Impact Factor: 2.52). 06/2012; 18(5):510-7. DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2011.0229
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates (266) collected in San Francisco, CA, in 2009 were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility and were subsequently genotyped by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Isolates of identical or closely related sequence types were found to possess highly similar phenotypes with regard to drug susceptibility. Isolates containing decreased susceptibility to oral cephalosporins were detected in 2009 and were found to contain the mosaic penA allele (XXXIV) found previously to be associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins. A better understanding of the relationships between phenotypic and genotypic markers for antimicrobial resistance may be helpful to the development of effective surveillance systems for drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sean Buono, Jul 09, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
94 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the second case in Europe of verified treatment failure of pharyngeal gonorrhoea, caused by an internationally occurring multidrug-resistant gonococcal clone, with recommended first-line ceftriaxone 250 mg in Slovenia. This is of grave concern since ceftriaxone is last remaining option for empirical treatment. Increased awareness of ceftriaxone failures, more frequent test-of-cure, strict adherence to regularly updated treatment guidelines, and thorough verification/falsification of suspected treatment failures are essential globally. New effective treatment options are imperative.
    Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin 01/2012; 17(25). · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The recent emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is a major concern globally. We sequenced the genome of an N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) ST1407 isolate (SM-3) with decreased susceptibility and resistance to oral extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The isolate was cultured in 2008 in San Francisco, CA, and possessed mosaic penA allele XXXIV, which is associated with an international clone that possesses decreased susceptibility as well as resistance to oral extended-spectrum cephalosporins globally. The genome sequence of strain NCCP11945 was used as a scaffold, and our assembly resulted in 91 contigs covering 2,029,064 bp (91%; >150× coverage) of the genome. Numerous instances of suspected horizontal genetic transfer events with other Neisseria species were identified, and two genes, opa and txf, acquired from nongonococcal Neisseria species, were identified. Strains possessing mosaic penA alleles (n = 108) and nonmosaic penA alleles (n = 169) from the United States and Europe (15 countries), cultured in 2002 to 2009, were screened for the presence of these genes. The opa gene was detected in most (82%) penA mosaic-containing isolates (mainly from 2007 to 2009) but not in any penA nonmosaic isolates. The txf gene was found in all strains containing opa but also in several (18%) penA nonmosaic strains. Using opa and txf as genetic markers, we identified a strain that possesses mosaic penA allele XXXIV, but the majority of its genome is not genetically related to strain SM-3. This implies that penA mosaic allele XXXIV was transferred horizontally. Such isolates also possessed decreased susceptibility and resistance to oral extended-spectrum cephalosporins. These findings support that genetic screening for particular penA mosaic alleles can be a valuable method for tracking strains with decreased susceptibility as well as resistance to oral extended-spectrum cephalosporins worldwide and that screening using only NG-MAST may not be sufficient.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2012; 56(11):5633-41. DOI:10.1128/AAC.00636-12 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The new superbug Neisseria gonorrhoeae has retained resistance to antimicrobials previously recommended for first-line treatment and has now demonstrated its capacity to develop resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, the last remaining option for first-line empiric treatment of gonorrhea. An era of untreatable gonorrhea may be approaching, which represents an exceedingly serious public health problem. Herein, we review the evolution, origin and spread of antimicrobial resistance and resistance determinants (with a focus on extended-spectrum cephalosporins) in N. gonorrhoeae, detail the current situation regarding verified treatment failures with extended-spectrum cephalosporins and future treatment options, and highlight essential actions to meet the large public health challenge that arises with the possible emergence of untreatable gonorrhea. Essential actions include: implementing action/response plans globally and nationally; enhancing surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance, treatment failures and antimicrobial use/misuse; and improving prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhea. Novel treatment strategies, antimicrobials (or other compounds) and, ideally, a vaccine must be developed.
    Future Microbiology 12/2012; 7(12):1401-22. DOI:10.2217/fmb.12.117 · 3.82 Impact Factor
Show more