Altered tRNA characteristics and 3' maturation in bacterial symbionts with reduced genomes.
ABSTRACT Translational efficiency is controlled by tRNAs and other genome-encoded mechanisms. In organelles, translational processes are dramatically altered because of genome shrinkage and horizontal acquisition of gene products. The influence of genome reduction on translation in endosymbionts is largely unknown. Here, we investigate whether divergent lineages of Buchnera aphidicola, the reduced-genome bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, possess altered translational features compared with their free-living relative, Escherichia coli. Our RNAseq data support the hypothesis that translation is less optimal in Buchnera than in E. coli. We observed a specific, convergent, pattern of tRNA loss in Buchnera and other endosymbionts that have undergone genome shrinkage. Furthermore, many modified nucleoside pathways that are important for E. coli translation are lost in Buchnera. Additionally, Buchnera's A + T compositional bias has resulted in reduced tRNA thermostability, and may have altered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase recognition sites. Buchnera tRNA genes are shorter than those of E. coli, as the majority no longer has a genome-encoded 3' CCA; however, all the expressed, shortened tRNAs undergo 3' CCA maturation. Moreover, expression of tRNA isoacceptors was not correlated with the usage of corresponding codons. Overall, our data suggest that endosymbiont genome evolution alters tRNA characteristics that are known to influence translational efficiency in their free-living relative.
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ABSTRACT: Analysis of the in vivo amber suppressor activity of mutants derived from two Escherichia coli serine tRNAs shows that substitution of 2 base pairs in the acceptor helix changes a serine suppressor tRNA to an efficient glutamine acceptor. Determination of the amino acid inserted in vivo into protein by this tRNA shows that these changes reduce the tRNA recognition by seryl-tRNA synthetase while increasing that of glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase. This implies that misaminoacylation in vivo is dependent on the competition by different synthetases for the tRNA. In addition, the "translational efficiency" of tRNA is an integral part in observing misaminoacylation in vivo.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1988; 85(18):6627-31. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genome sequences reveal that a deluge of DNA from organelles has constantly been bombarding the nucleus since the origin of organelles. Recent experiments have shown that DNA is transferred from organelles to the nucleus at frequencies that were previously unimaginable. Endosymbiotic gene transfer is a ubiquitous, continuing and natural process that pervades nuclear DNA dynamics. This relentless influx of organelle DNA has abolished organelle autonomy and increased nuclear complexity.Nature Reviews Genetics 03/2004; 5(2):123-35. · 41.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The trmD gene encodes the tRNA(m1G37)methyltransferase, which methylates guanosine (G) to 1-methylguanosine (m1G) at position 37 of tRNAs that read CUN (leucine), CCN (proline), and CGG (arginine) codons. A mutant, trmD3, has previously been isolated, which at high temperature lacks m1G in tRNA, and this deficiency was correlated with a +1 frameshifting activity. In this study, the mechanism of this trmD3-induced frameshift involving mutant tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Leu) species has been investigated. Potential frameshifting sites for proline tRNAs, CCC-N, were efficiently suppressed in the mutant strain. Hybrid beta-galactosidases encoded by plasmid constructs containing the sites CCC-U and CCC-A were subjected to amino-terminal sequencing. The protein sequences demonstrated that a quadruplet translocation had occurred and that a proline was inserted at these sites, suggesting that a tRNA(Pro) deficient in m1G is the frameshifting agent. Therefore, a mechanism involving a quadruplet codon-anticodon interaction is favoured for trmD3-dependent +1 frameshifting. Of the four potential sites for tRNA(Leu) (CCU-N), two, CCU-U and CCU-C, were significantly suppressed in the trmD3 mutant. Thus, species of tRNA(Leu) may also act as +1 frameshift suppressors. No -1 frameshifting activity was found with the trmD3 mutant.Journal of Molecular Biology 09/1993; 232(3):756-65. · 3.91 Impact Factor