Primary Reaction of Sensory Rhodopsin II Mutant D75N and the Influence of Azide
ABSTRACT The early steps in the photocycle of sensory rhodopsin II mutant D75N are investigated in a comprehensive study using femtosecond visible pump/probe spectroscopy. An overall slower response dynamics after photoexcitation is observed compared to wild-type sensory rhodopsin II, which is assigned to changed electrostatics and an altered hydrogen-bonding network within the retinal binding pocket. Furthermore, the influence of azide on the primary reaction is analyzed. The addition of azide accelerates the sub-10 ps dynamics of the D75N mutant nearly to reaction rates found in wild-type. Moreover, a further reaction pathway becomes observable in the investigated time range, which is assigned to a previously described K1 to K2 transition. The specific acceleration of the early steps seems to be a unique feature of the D75N mutant as similar azide effects do not emerge in analogous azide measurements of wild-type sensory rhodopsin II, bacteriorhodopsin, and the bacteriorhodopsin mutant D85N.
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ABSTRACT: Femtosecond time-resolved absorption measurements were performed to investigate the influence of the pH, imidazole concentration, and point mutations on the isomerization process of Channelrhodopsin-2. Apart from the typical spectral characteristics of retinal isomerization, an additional absorption feature rises for the wild-type (wt) on a timescale from tens of ps to 1 ns within the spectral range of the photoproduct and is attributed to an equilibration between different K-intermediates. Remarkably, this absorption feature vanishes upon addition of imidazole or lowering the pH. In the latter case, the isomerization is dramatically slowed down, due to protonation of negatively charged amino acids within the retinal binding pocket, e.g., E123 and D253. Moreover, we investigated the influence of several point mutations within the retinal binding pocket E123T, E123D, C128T, and D156C. For E123T, the isomerization is retarded compared to wt and E123D, indicating that a negatively charged residue at this position functions as an effective catalyst in the isomerization process. In the case of the C128T mutant, all primary processes are slightly accelerated compared to the wt, whereas the isomerization dynamics for the D156C mutant is similar to wt after addition of imidazole.Biophysical Journal 06/2012; 102(11):2649-57. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The photocycle of channelrhodopsin-2 is investigated in a comprehensive study by ultrafast absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as flash photolysis in the visible spectral range. The ultrafast techniques reveal an excited-state decay mechanism analogous to that of the archaeal bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin II from Natronomonas pharaonis. After a fast vibrational relaxation of the excited-state population with 150 fs its decay with mainly 400 fs is observed. Hereby, both the initial all-trans retinal ground state and the 13-cis-retinal K photoproduct are populated. The reaction proceeds with a 2.7 ps component assigned to cooling processes. Small spectral shifts are observed on a 200 ps timescale. They are attributed to conformational rearrangements in the retinal binding pocket. The subsequent dynamics progresses with the formation of an M-like intermediate (7 and 120 μs), which decays into red-shifted states within 3 ms. Ground-state recovery including channel closing and reisomerization of the retinal chromophore occurs in a triexponential manner (6 ms, 33 ms, 3.4 s). To learn more about the energy barriers between the different photocycle intermediates, temperature-dependent flash photolysis measurements are performed between 10 and 30°C. The first five time constants decrease with increasing temperature. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicate that the closing mechanism is controlled by large negative entropy changes. The last time constant is temperature independent, which demonstrates that the photocycle is most likely completed by a series of individual steps recovering the initial structure.ChemPhysChem 10/2010; 11(14):3113-22. · 3.35 Impact Factor