Article

Perinatal Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Preschool-Age Children in the United States: An Analysis of 1999–2008 NHANES Data

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Batchelor Children's Research Institute, 580 NW 10th Avenue (D820), Miami, FL 33101, USA.
International Journal of Pediatrics 05/2012; 2012:157237. DOI: 10.1155/2012/157237
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We examined the relationships between selected perinatal and early infancy factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant low birthweight, breastfeeding, and early introduction of solid foods [<6 months of age] and increased BMI [≥85th, ≥95th percentiles for age, sex]), waist circumference (WC), C-reactive protein (CRP), triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol during early childhood. The population-based sample included 3,644 3-to-6-year-old Non-Hispanic White (NHW), Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) children who participated in the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Analysis showed that breastfeeding was significantly protective against early childhood obesity (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.27-0.69) and the highest quintile for WC (OR 0.58, 95% CI, 0.37-0.32) among NHW, and against the highest quintile of non-HDL cholesterol among NHB (OR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.32-0.98). Additionally, NHW children were significantly more likely to be obese (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.30-3.78) and have higher CRP levels (OR 1.63, 95% CI, 1.05-2.51) if their mothers smoked during pregnancy. These results support the observation that breastfeeding may be protective against early childhood obesity while maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for obesity and increased CRP levels among NHW young children.

0 Followers
 · 
78 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the past 20 years, the prevalence of obesity in the United States increased almost 50% among adults and by 300% in children. Today, 9.7% of all U.S. infants up to 2 years old have abnormally high weight-for-recumbent length; 25% of children under age 5 are either overweight or obese; and 17% of adolescents are obese. Ethnic disparities in the rates of obesity are also large and apparent in childhood. Further, 44% of obese adolescents have metabolic syndrome. Obese children tend to become obese adults; thus, in a decade, young adults will likely have much higher risks of chronic disease, which has tremendous implications for the healthcare system. However, early childhood may be the best time to prevent obesity. Teachers' healthy eating choices are positively associated with changes in body mass index percentiles for children, for example. In addition, 8 million children attend afterschool programs, which can successfully promote health and wellness and successfully treat obesity. This childhood epidemic of obesity and its health-related consequences in adolescents should be a clinical and public health priority. However, this major public health problem cannot be managed solely in clinical settings. Rather, public health strategies must be integrated into home and family, school and community-based settings.
    12/2013; 3(6). DOI:10.1111/cob.12033
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain can complicate a woman’s pregnancy and put her and her child at risk for poor delivery and birth outcomes. Further, feeding and activity habits established early in life can significantly impact the development of childhood obesity. The on-going Delta Healthy Sprouts Project is a randomized, controlled, comparative trial testing the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting programs on weight status and health behaviors of 150 mothers and their infants residing in the rural Mississippi Delta region of the United States. Women are enrolled in their second trimester of pregnancy and randomized to one of two treatment arms. The control arm curriculum is based on Parents as Teachers, an evidence based approach to increase parental knowledge of child development and improve parenting practices. The experimental arm, labeled Parents as Teachers Enhanced, builds upon the control curriculum by including culturally tailored nutrition and physical activity components specifically designed for the gestational and postnatal periods. We hypothesize that, as compared to the control arm, the experimental arm will be more effective in preventing inappropriate gestational weight gain, reducing postnatal weight retention, and decreasing infant obesity rates. We also will evaluate mother and child dietary and physical activity outcomes, breastfeeding initiation and continuation, and child feeding practices. The Delta Healthy Sprouts Project tests a novel, combined approach to maternal weight management and childhood obesity prevention in pregnant women and their children at high risk for obesity and chronic disease.
    Contemporary clinical trials 05/2014; 38(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2014.03.004 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breastfeeding has been found to have a protective effect on subsequent development of obesity in childhood, particularly in white, non-Hispanic populations. The protective effect of nursing for more than 12 months in children of Latina women is less clear, which may be due to differences in levels of acculturation in previously studied populations. We evaluated the association between breastfeeding for 12 months or more and risk for obesity in a cohort of children of recently immigrated relatively unacculturated Latina mothers. Maternal characteristics at birth, including length of stay in the United States, breastfeeding habits at 4-6 weeks of age, 6 months, and 1 year, and anthropometric measurements were obtained for a cohort of 196 children participating in a prospective study. At 1 year of age 39.0 % of infants were being breastfed. Being breastfed at 1 year of age was associated with a decreased risk of obesity in both univariate (odds ratio (OR) 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.83) and multivariate models (OR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.02-0.93) adjusting for maternal BMI, marital status, education level, country of origin, age, years of living in the United States, and child's birth weight at 3 years of age, regardless of mother's acculturation status using length of stay in the United States as a proxy for acculturation. The association with breastfeeding persisted at 4 years of age as a protective factor for obesity (OR 0.29, 95 % CI 0.11-0.80). Breastfeeding for longer than 12 months provides a significant protective effect on the development of obesity in early childhood in a cohort of children of high-risk recently immigrated Latina women in San Francisco who were relatively unacculturated to the United States.
    Journal of Community Health 11/2013; 39(3). DOI:10.1007/s10900-013-9781-y · 1.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
22 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014