Downregulation of HMGA2 by the pan-deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat is dependent on hsa-let-7b expression in liver cancer cell lines

Institute for Surgical Research, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg, Germany.
Experimental Cell Research (Impact Factor: 3.25). 06/2012; 318(15):1832-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2012.04.018
Source: PubMed


Inhibitors of protein deacetylases represent a novel therapeutic option for cancer diseases due to their effects on transcriptional regulation by interfering with histones acetylation and on several other cellular pathways. Recently, their ability to modulate several transcription factors and, interestingly, also co-factors, which actively participate in formation and modulation of transcription complexes was shown. We here investigate whether HMGA2 (High Mobility Group AT-2 hook), a nuclear non-histone transcriptional co-factor with known oncogenic properties, can be influenced by the novel pan-deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) in human hepatocellular carcinoma models. Panobinostat strongly downregulated HMGA2 in HepG2 and Hep3B cells; this effect was mediated by transcriptional upregulation and promotion of the maturation of the tumorsuppressor miRNA hsa-let-7b, which could inhibit HMGA2 expression via RNA interference pathways. siRNA knockdown of HMGA2 or transfection of hsa-let-7b mimicking oligonucleotides confirmed the role of HMGA2 in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in liver cancer cell lines. Co-incubation with panobinostat showed an additive effect on inhibition of cell proliferation using an impedance-based real-time cell analyzer. Treatment of HepG2 xenografts with panobinostat also led to a downregulation of HMGA2 in vivo. These findings show that pan-deacetylase inhibitors also modulate other signaling pathways and networks than histone modifications to influence cell fate.

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    • "Additional regulatory effects responsible for this phenomenon could involve the altered miRNA profile after treatment with deacetylase inhibitors [53-55]. We have previously shown that panobinostat is a strong modulator of miRNA expression in liver cancer cell lines [56] and it was also demonstrated by others that various miRNAs, e.g. miR-29, miR-148 or miR-185, can regulate the expression of DNMTs [57-61] and thus crosslink deacetylase inhibition to mechanisms of DNA methylation [22,23,62]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still represents an unmet medical need. Epigenetic inactivation of tumor suppressor genes like RASSF1A or APC by overexpression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) has been shown to be common in HCC and to be linked to the overall prognosis of patients. Inhibitors of protein and histone deacetylases (DACi) have been demonstrated to possess strong anti-tumor effects in HCC models. Methods We therefore investigated whether DACi also has any influence on the expression and activity of DNMTs and methylated target genes in HepG2 and Hep3B cell culture systems and in a xenograft model by immunohistochemistry, westernblotting, RT-qPCR and methylation-specific PCR. Results Our findings demonstrate a rapid inhibition of DNMT activity 6 h after treatment with 0.1 μM of the pan-DACi panobinostat. A downregulation of DNMT mRNAs and protein were also observed at later points in time. This loss of DNMT activity and expression was paralleled by a diminished methylation of the target genes RASSF1A and APC and a concomitant re-expression of APC mRNA and protein. Analysis of HepG2 xenograft specimens confirmed these results in vivo. Conclusion We suggest a dual mode of action of DACi on DNA methylation status: a rapid inhibition of enzyme activity due to interference with posttranslational acetylation and a delayed effect on transcriptional control of DNMT genes by HDAC or miRNA mechanisms.
    BMC Cancer 09/2012; 12(1):386. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-12-386 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the third cause of cancer-related death. Poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HCC makes it difficult to be diagnosed and treated at early stage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding single-stranded RNAs of ~22 nucleotides in length, posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by base pairing with the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Aberrant expression of miRNAs is found in many if not all cancers, and many deregulated miRNAs have been proved to play crucial roles in the initiation and progression of cancers by regulating the expression of various oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. In this Paper, we will summarize the regulations and functions of miRNAs aberrantly expressed in HCC and discuss the potential application of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of HCC and their potential roles in the intervention of HCC.
    The Scientific World Journal 02/2013; 2013(1):924206. DOI:10.1155/2013/924206 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Panobinostat, a pan-deacetylase inhibitor, represents a novel therapeutic option for cancer diseases. Besides its ability to block histone deacetylases (HDACs) by promoting histone hyperacetylation, panobinostat interferes with several cell death pathways providing a potential efficacy against tumors. We have previously demonstrated that panobinostat has a potent apoptotic activity in vitro and causes a significant growth delay of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor xenografts in nude mice models. Here, we show that treatment with panobinostat is able to induce noncanonical apoptotic cell death in HepG2 and in Hep3B cells, involving the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by up-regulation of the molecular chaperone binding immunoglobulin protein/glucose-regulated protein 78, activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α-activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67) and inositol requiring 1α-X-box binding protein 1 factors, strong increase and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein/growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153, and involvement of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These signaling cascades culminate into the activation of the ER-located caspase-4/12 and of executioner caspases, which finally lead to cell demise. Our results clearly show that panobinostat induces an alternative ER stress-mediated cell death pathway in HCC cells, independent of the p53 status.
    Translational oncology 04/2013; 6(2):143-57. DOI:10.1593/tlo.12271 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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