ADAM13 function is required in the 3 dimensional context of the embryo during cranial neural crest cell migration in Xenopus laevis

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.
Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 3.55). 06/2012; 368(2):335-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.05.036
Source: PubMed


The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a population of cells that arises from the lateral part of the developing brain, migrates ventrally and coordinates the entire craniofacial development of vertebrates. Many molecules are involved in CNC migration including the transmembrane metalloproteases ADAM13 and 19. We have previously shown that these ADAMs cleave a number of extracellular proteins and modify the transcription of a number of genes, and that both of these activities are important for cell migration. Here we show that the knock down of ADAM13 inhibits CNC migration in vivo but not in vitro, indicating that ADAM13 function is required in the 3-dimentional context of the embryo. We further show that the migration of CNC that do not express ADAM13 and ADAM19 can be rescued in vivo by co-grafting wild type CNC. Furthermore, the migration of CNC lacking ADAM13 can be rescued by mechanically separating the CNC from the surrounding ectoderm and mesoderm. Finally, we show that ADAM13 function is autonomous to CNC tissue, as the migration of morphant CNC can only be rescued by ADAM13 expression in the CNC and not the surrounding tissues. Together our results suggest that ADAM13 changes CNC interaction with the extracellular environment and that this change is necessary for their migration in vivo.

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Available from: Hélène Cousin,
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    • "In addition, we previously showed that ADAM13 and 19 activity was essential in the leading CNC but that morphant cells could follow wild-type cells in grafts (Cousin et al., 2012). Similarly, in chickens, ADAM13 is expressed more abundantly in the leading cells than in the followers (McLennan et al., 2012). "
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