Sociodemographic and cultural determinants of sleep deficiency: Implications for cardiometabolic disease risk.
ABSTRACT Sleep is a biological imperative associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. As such, a thorough discussion of the sociocultural and demographic determinants of sleep is warranted, if not overdue. This paper begins with a brief review of the laboratory and epidemiologic evidence linking sleep deficiency, which includes insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality, with increased risk of chronic cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Identification of the determinants of sleep deficiency is the critical next step to understanding the role sleep plays in human variation in health and disease. Therefore, the majority of this paper describes the different biopsychosocial determinants of sleep, including age, gender, psychosocial factors (depression, stress and loneliness), socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity. In addition, because sleep duration is partly determined by behavior, it will be shaped by cultural values, beliefs and practices. Therefore, possible cultural differences that may impact sleep are discussed. If certain cultural, ethnic or social groups are more likely to experience sleep deficiency, then these differences in sleep could increase their risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Furthermore, if the mechanisms underlying the increased risk of sleep deficiency in certain populations can be identified, interventions could be developed to target these mechanisms, reduce sleep differences and potentially reduce cardiometabolic disease risk.
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ABSTRACT: To examine the association of SES with subjective and objective sleep disturbances and the role of socio-demographic, behavioural and psychological factors in explaining this association.Sleep Medicine 02/2015; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Consistency, quality, and duration of sleep are important determinants of health. We describe sleep patterns among demographically defined subgroups from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System reported in 4 successive biennial representative samples of American high school students (2007 to 2013). Across the 4 waves of data collection, 6.2% to 7.7% of females and 8.0% to 9.4% of males reported obtaining 9 or more hours of sleep. Insufficient duration of sleep is pervasive among American high school students. Despite substantive public health implications, intervention research on this topic has received little attention.Preventing chronic disease 12/2014; 11:E216. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate ethnic differences in the associations of nighttime sleep and daytime napping durations with prevalent type 2 diabetes. Samples of White (n = 908), Filipina (n = 330), and Black (n = 371) community-dwelling, postmenopausal women aged 50-86 years were evaluated with cross-sectional data obtained during 1992-1999 including self-reported duration of nighttime sleep and daytime napping, behaviors, medical history, and medication use. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was evaluated with a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Overall, 10.9% of White, 37.8% of Filipina, and 17.8% of Black women had type 2 diabetes. Average sleep durations were 7.3, 6.3, and 6.6 h and napping durations were 16.8, 31.7, and 25.9 min for White, Filipina, and Black women, respectively. Sleep duration showed a significant (p < 0.01) nonlinear association with type 2 diabetes in Filipina women, with increased odds of diabetes at both low and high sleep durations independent of age, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, hypertension, and daytime napping duration. Daytime napping duration was associated with type 2 diabetes only among White women; those napping ≥ 30 min/day had 74% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10%, 175%) higher odds of diabetes compared to non-nappers independent of covariates including nighttime sleep duration. Results suggest ethnic-specific associations of nighttime sleep and daytime napping durations with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.Sleep medicine. 12/2014;