Sociodemographic and cultural determinants of sleep deficiency: Implications for cardiometabolic disease risk
ABSTRACT Sleep is a biological imperative associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. As such, a thorough discussion of the sociocultural and demographic determinants of sleep is warranted, if not overdue. This paper begins with a brief review of the laboratory and epidemiologic evidence linking sleep deficiency, which includes insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality, with increased risk of chronic cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Identification of the determinants of sleep deficiency is the critical next step to understanding the role sleep plays in human variation in health and disease. Therefore, the majority of this paper describes the different biopsychosocial determinants of sleep, including age, gender, psychosocial factors (depression, stress and loneliness), socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity. In addition, because sleep duration is partly determined by behavior, it will be shaped by cultural values, beliefs and practices. Therefore, possible cultural differences that may impact sleep are discussed. If certain cultural, ethnic or social groups are more likely to experience sleep deficiency, then these differences in sleep could increase their risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Furthermore, if the mechanisms underlying the increased risk of sleep deficiency in certain populations can be identified, interventions could be developed to target these mechanisms, reduce sleep differences and potentially reduce cardiometabolic disease risk.
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ABSTRACT: Socio-demographic indicators closely relate to sleep in industrialized populations. However we know very little about how such factors impact sleep in populations undergoing industrialization. Within populations transitioning to the global economy, the preliminary evidence has found an inconsistent relationship between socio-demographics and sleep complaints across countries and social strata. Surveys were conducted on a sample of rural Sakha (Yakut) adults (n = 168) during the autumn of 2103 to assess variation in socio-demographics and sleep complaints, including trouble sleeping and daytime sleepiness. Socio-demographic variables included age, gender, socioeconomic measures, and markers of traditional/market-based lifestyle. We tested whether the socio-demographic variables predicted sleep complaints using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions. Trouble sleeping was reported by 18.5% of the participants and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) by 17.3%. Trouble sleeping was significantly predicted by older age, female gender, and mixing traditional and market-based lifestyles. EDS was not significantly predicted by any socio-demographic variable. These findings support the few large-scale studies that found inconsistent relationships between measures of socioeconomic status and sleep complaints in transitioning populations. Employing a mix of traditional and market-based lifestyles may leave Sakha in a space of vulnerability, leading to trouble sleeping. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/ajpa.22761 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity represents an important public health concern and has negative health and social consequences. Epidemiological and observational studies have contributed to highlighting the multifactorial and complex etiology of obesity. Among the social components of the obesity epidemic the following appear to be the most relevant: assortative mating, parental age, socio-economical status and educational level, body dissatisfaction, sleep conditions, sedentary environments by build neighborhood, energy saving devices, work occupation and alcohol consumption. The assortative mating and parental traits (age, education level) have shown an important influence on the weight of children. In turn, sleep deprivation may reduce the energy expenditure and increase food intake, which can explain a relation with obesity. Body dissatisfaction in childhood and adolescence seems to increase the risk of obesity in adulthood. The low physical activity and spent sedentary time can be associated with unfavorably built environment, including low walk ability, unsafe playgrounds and pedestrian pathways. Moreover, the obesity per se, over time, may reduce physical activity level and social ability as well as influence in assortative mating, and subsequent intergenerational obesity condition. All findings together demonstrated that social components of obesity are as complex as itself. In summary, more studies concerning social, cultural and environment traits are needed in order to assess the effect of excessive adiposity in its own occurrence and chronicity. In addition, it is urgent to include obesity prevention as a relevant topic on the public health agenda in developing countries.03/2012; 2(1). DOI:10.1007/s13679-012-0043-6
- Social Science [?] Medicine 12/2012; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.11.023 · 2.56 Impact Factor