Sociodemographic and cultural determinants of sleep deficiency: Implications for cardiometabolic disease risk
ABSTRACT Sleep is a biological imperative associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. As such, a thorough discussion of the sociocultural and demographic determinants of sleep is warranted, if not overdue. This paper begins with a brief review of the laboratory and epidemiologic evidence linking sleep deficiency, which includes insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality, with increased risk of chronic cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Identification of the determinants of sleep deficiency is the critical next step to understanding the role sleep plays in human variation in health and disease. Therefore, the majority of this paper describes the different biopsychosocial determinants of sleep, including age, gender, psychosocial factors (depression, stress and loneliness), socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity. In addition, because sleep duration is partly determined by behavior, it will be shaped by cultural values, beliefs and practices. Therefore, possible cultural differences that may impact sleep are discussed. If certain cultural, ethnic or social groups are more likely to experience sleep deficiency, then these differences in sleep could increase their risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Furthermore, if the mechanisms underlying the increased risk of sleep deficiency in certain populations can be identified, interventions could be developed to target these mechanisms, reduce sleep differences and potentially reduce cardiometabolic disease risk.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate ethnic differences in the associations of nighttime sleep and daytime napping durations with prevalent type 2 diabetes. Samples of White (n = 908), Filipina (n = 330), and Black (n = 371) community-dwelling, postmenopausal women aged 50-86 years were evaluated with cross-sectional data obtained during 1992-1999 including self-reported duration of nighttime sleep and daytime napping, behaviors, medical history, and medication use. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was evaluated with a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Overall, 10.9% of White, 37.8% of Filipina, and 17.8% of Black women had type 2 diabetes. Average sleep durations were 7.3, 6.3, and 6.6 h and napping durations were 16.8, 31.7, and 25.9 min for White, Filipina, and Black women, respectively. Sleep duration showed a significant (p < 0.01) nonlinear association with type 2 diabetes in Filipina women, with increased odds of diabetes at both low and high sleep durations independent of age, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, hypertension, and daytime napping duration. Daytime napping duration was associated with type 2 diabetes only among White women; those napping ≥ 30 min/day had 74% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10%, 175%) higher odds of diabetes compared to non-nappers independent of covariates including nighttime sleep duration. Results suggest ethnic-specific associations of nighttime sleep and daytime napping durations with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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ABSTRACT: Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise.12/2014; 7(4):209-212. DOI:10.1016/j.slsci.2014.11.003
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ABSTRACT: To examine the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with subjective and objective sleep disturbances and the role of socio-demographic, behavioural and psychological factors in explaining this association. Analyses are based on 3391 participants (53% female, aged 40-81 years) of the follow-up of the CoLaus study (2009-2012), a population-based sample of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland. All participants completed a sleep questionnaire and a sub-sample (N = 1569) underwent polysomnography. Compared with men with a high SES, men with a low SES were more likely to suffer from poor sleep quality [prevalence ratio (PR) for occupational position = 1.68, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.30-2.17], and to have long sleep latency (PR = 4.90, 95%CI: 2.14-11.17), insomnia (PR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12-1.93) and short sleep duration (PR = 3.03, 95% CI: 1.78-5.18). The same pattern was observed among women (PR = 1.29 for sleep quality, 2.34 for sleep latency, 2.01 for daytime sleepiness, 3.16 for sleep duration, 95%CIs ranging from 1.00 to 7.51). Use of sleep medications was not patterned by SES. SES differences in sleep disturbances were only marginally attenuated by adjustment for other socio-demographic, behavioural and psychological factors. Results from polysomnography confirmed poorer sleep patterns among participants with low SES (p <0.05 for sleep efficiency/stage shifts), but no SES differences were found for sleep duration. In this population-based sample, low SES was strongly associated with sleep disturbances, independently of socio-demographic, behavioural, and psychological factors. Further research should establish the extent to which social differences in sleep contribute to socioeconomic differences in health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Sleep Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.12.014 · 3.10 Impact Factor