Resistance to antimicrobials continues to increase worldwide. Data suggest that older patients are among the main reservoirs of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the hospital. We hypothesized that older patients (≥65 years of age) are more likely to harbor MDRO at hospital admission. We compared rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN) recovered from clinical cultures within the first 48h of admission to an adult acute care hospital between the elderly (≥65 years old) and young per 1000 age-stratified admissions over a 12-year study period. Trends in antimicrobial resistance, sites of recovery and species for MDRGN were also characterized. An average of 7534 positive bacterial cultures were collected per year. The admission prevalence per 1000 age-stratified admissions was consistently higher among the elderly for all three MDRO under investigation. Among the elderly, the admission prevalence increased significantly for VRE (0.89 in 1998 to 3.62 in 2009 per 1000 admissions; p<0.001) and MDRGN (1.41 in 1998 to 11.33 in 2009 per 1000 admissions; p<0.001). Percentage resistant for all three MDRO increased as well. These data suggest that elderly patients are contributing substantially to the influx of MDRO into the hospital setting.
"Unfortunately, some enterococci are opportunistic pathogens that infect compromised hosts such as infants, hospital patients, and elderly.    With the development of new antimicrobial agents and use of increased dosage of antimicrobials in the medical treatment, drug-resistant enterococci that cause serious problems in the treatment of nosocomial infections have arisen.   Furthermore, the most serious drug-resistant enterococci, with high-level Address correspondence to Yoshihiro Suzuki, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a first step for assessing the risk to human health posed by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in the aquatic environment, we screened sewage and urban river water samples from Miyazaki, Japan for VRE. Because vancomycin-resistant organisms are not as prevalent in sewage and river water as vancomycin-susceptible organisms, the samples were screened by minimum inhibitory concentration test using the vancomycin-supplemented membrane-Enterococcus indoxyl-β-d-glucoside (mEI) agar. The isolates, presumed to be enterococci, were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The percentages of VRE isolates screened using 4 μg mL(-1) vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar from sewage and urban river water samples were 12% and 24%, respectively. The vancomycin-resistant genes vanC1 and vanC2/3 were detected in the isolates from both samples by PCR analysis. All enterococci isolates containing vanC1, which is a specific gene for vanC-type of VRE, were identified as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarum. Further, 92% enterococci isolates containing vanC2/3 were identified as E. casseliflavus/gallinarum, the remaining isolates containing vanC2/3 were E. faecium (4%) and E. faecalis (4%). Thereafter, the distribution of E. faecium and E. faecalis, which are the major types of enterococci in humans containing vanC2/3, was observed in the water samples collected.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 01/2015; 50(1):16-25. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.964599 · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing dialysis are particularly vulnerable to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. We performed a meta-analysis of published studies to estimate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in dialysis patients, time trends, and long-term risk of subsequent MRSA infections. Our search of the PubMed and Embase databases returned 5743 nonduplicate citations, from which we identified 38 relevant studies that included data on 5596 dialysis patients. The estimated prevalence of MRSA colonization was 6.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2% to 8.5%). The prevalence increased over time but remained stable after 2000. Stratification of patients according to dialysis modality and setting revealed that 7.2% (95% CI, 4.9% to 9.9%) of patients on hemodialysis were colonized with MRSA compared with 1.3% (95% CI, 0.5% to 2.4%) of patients on peritoneal dialysis (P=0.01), and that a statistically significant difference existed in the percentage of colonized inpatients and outpatients (14.2% [95% CI, 8.0% to 21.8%] versus 5.4% [95% CI, 3.5% to 7.7%], respectively; P=0.04). Notably, the risk of developing MRSA infections increased among colonized hemodialysis patients compared with noncolonized patients (relative risk, 11.5 [95% CI, 4.7 to 28.0]). The long-term (6-20 months) probability of developing a MRSA infection was 19% among colonized hemodialysis patients compared with only 2% among noncolonized patients. In summary, 6.2% of dialysis patients are MRSA colonized, and the average prevalence of colonization has remained stable since 2000. Colonization in hemodialysis patients is associated with increased risk of MRSA infection.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2014; 25(9). DOI:10.1681/ASN.2013091028 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To understand the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections among nursing home (NH) residents and the potential for their spread between NHs and acute care hospitals (ACHs).
Descriptive analyses of MDRO infections among NH residents using all NH residents in the Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 between October 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011.
Analysis of MDS data revealed a very high volume of bidirectional patient flow between NHs and ACHs, indicating the need to study MDRO infections in NHs as well as in hospitals. A total of 4.24% of NH residents had an active MDRO diagnosis on at least 1 MDS assessment during the study period. This rate significantly varied by sex, age, urban/rural status, and state. Approximately 2% of NH discharges to ACHs involved a resident with an active diagnosis of infection due to MDROs. Conversely, 1.8% of NH admissions from an ACH involved a patient with an active diagnosis of infection due to MDROs. Among residents who acquired an MDRO infection during the study period, 57% became positive in the NH, 41% in the ACH, and 2% in other settings (eg, at a private home or apartment).
Even though NHs are the most likely setting where residents would acquire MDROs after admission to an NH (accounting for 57% of cases), a significant fraction of NH residents acquire MDRO infection at ACHs (41%). Thus, effective MDRO infection control for NH residents requires simultaneous, cooperative interventions among NHs and ACHs in the same community.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 10/2014; 35(S3):S48-S55. DOI:10.1086/677835 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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