Increased multi-drug resistance among the elderly on admission to the hospital-A 12-year surveillance study.
ABSTRACT Resistance to antimicrobials continues to increase worldwide. Data suggest that older patients are among the main reservoirs of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the hospital. We hypothesized that older patients (≥65 years of age) are more likely to harbor MDRO at hospital admission. We compared rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN) recovered from clinical cultures within the first 48h of admission to an adult acute care hospital between the elderly (≥65 years old) and young per 1000 age-stratified admissions over a 12-year study period. Trends in antimicrobial resistance, sites of recovery and species for MDRGN were also characterized. An average of 7534 positive bacterial cultures were collected per year. The admission prevalence per 1000 age-stratified admissions was consistently higher among the elderly for all three MDRO under investigation. Among the elderly, the admission prevalence increased significantly for VRE (0.89 in 1998 to 3.62 in 2009 per 1000 admissions; p<0.001) and MDRGN (1.41 in 1998 to 11.33 in 2009 per 1000 admissions; p<0.001). Percentage resistant for all three MDRO increased as well. These data suggest that elderly patients are contributing substantially to the influx of MDRO into the hospital setting.
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ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of public health importance; MRSA prevention programs that may affect MRSA transmission and infection are increasingly common in health care settings. Whether there have been changes in MRSA infection incidence as these programs become established is unknown; however, recent data have shown that rates of MRSA bloodstream infections (BSIs) in intensive care units are decreasing. To describe changes in rates of invasive health care-associated MRSA infections from 2005 through 2008 among residents of 9 US metropolitan areas. Active, population-based surveillance for invasive MRSA in 9 metropolitan areas covering a population of approximately 15 million persons. All reports of laboratory-identified episodes of invasive (from a normally sterile body site) MRSA infections from 2005 through 2008 were evaluated and classified based on the setting of the positive culture and the presence or absence of health care exposures. Health care-associated infections (ie, hospital-onset and health care-associated community-onset), which made up 82% of the total infections, were included in this analysis. Change in incidence of invasive health care-associated MRSA infections and health care-associated MRSA BSIs using population of the catchment area as the denominator. From 2005 through 2008, there were 21,503 episodes of invasive MRSA infection; 17,508 were health care associated. Of these, 15,458 were MRSA BSIs. The incidence rate of hospital-onset invasive MRSA infections was 1.02 per 10,000 population in 2005 and decreased 9.4% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.7% to 3.8%; P = .005), and the incidence of health care-associated community-onset infections was 2.20 per 10,000 population in 2005 and decreased 5.7% per year (95% CI, 9.7% to 1.6%; P = .01). The decrease was most prominent for the subset of infections with BSIs (hospital-onset: -11.2%; 95% CI -15.9% to -6.3%; health care-associated community-onset: -6.6%; 95% CI -9.5% to -3.7%). Over the 4-year period from 2005 through 2008 in 9 diverse metropolitan areas, rates of invasive health care-associated MRSA infections decreased among patients with health care-associated infections that began in the community and also decreased among those with hospital-onset invasive disease.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/2010; 304(6):641-8. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An improved understanding of the transmission dynamics of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria and the mechanism of acquisition in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) could aid in the development of prevention strategies specific to LTCFs. We thus investigated the incidence of acquisition of these pathogens among an LTCF population. Prospective cohort study. Three separate wards at a 600-bed LTCF in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, during the period October 31, 2006, through October 22, 2007. One hundred seventy-two LTCF residents. A series of rectal samples were cultured to determine acquisition of MDR gram-negative bacteria, defined as absence of MDR gram-negative bacterial colonization at baseline and de novo recovery of MDR gram-negative bacteria from a follow-up culture. Molecular typing was performed to identify genetically linked strains. A nested matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors associated with acquisition. Among 135 residents for whom at least 1 follow-up culture was performed, 52 (39%) acquired at least 1 MDR gram-negative organism during the study period. Thirty-two residents (62%) had not been colonized at baseline and had acquired at least 1 MDR gram-negative species at follow-up culture, and 20 residents (38%) were colonized at baseline and had acquired at least 1 MDR gram-negative species at follow-up culture. The most common coresistance pattern was resistance to extended-spectrum penicillins, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin (57 isolates [42.5%]). Genetically related strains of MDR gram-negative bacteria were identified among multiple residents and between roommates. On conditional logistic regression analysis, antibiotic exposure during the study period was significantly associated with acquisition of MDR gram-negative bacteria (odds ratio, 5.6 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-28.7]; P = .04). Acquisition of MDR gram-negative bacteria occurred frequently through resident-to-resident transmission. Existing infection control interventions need to be reevaluated.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 10/2010; 31(11):1148-53. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the relation between prior exposure to specific antimicrobials and acquisition of gram-negative bacilli resistant to multiple beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics among long-term-care patients. Case-control study. Cases were patients from whom multiply resistant Enterobacteriaceae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated; controls were patients from whom nonresistant bacteria of the same species were isolated. Prospectively defined risk factors included underlying illness, activity level, presence of decubitus ulcers, presence of indwelling devices, and prior exposure to specific antimicrobial agents. Resistant and control isolates of P aeruginosa were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of genomic DNA after digestion with XbaI. 390-bed long-term Veterans' Affairs facility. We identified 35 patients with multiply resistant Enterobacteriaceae and 24 patients with multiply resistant P aeruginosa. Of the resistant Enterobacteriaceae, 87% of isolates were resistant to piperacillin, 55% to ceftazidime, and 90% to gentamicin. Acquisition of multiply resistant Enterobacteriaceae was associated with presence of decubitus ulcers (odds ratio [OR], 12.2; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 3.3-44.2; P = .0002) and prior receipt of ampicillin (OR, 13.7; CI95, 2.2-84; P = .005). Of resistant isolates of P aeruginosa, 88% were resistant to piperacillin, 25% to ceftazidime, 42% to imipenem, and 67% to ciprofloxacin. Isolation of a multiply resistant P aeruginosa was associated with total days of antimicrobial exposure (OR, 1.07; CI95, 1.01-1.12; P = .011) and not with prior receipt of any individual agent. Eleven multiply resistant isolates shared a common PFGE pattern. In our long-term-care facility, acquisition of multiply resistant Enterobacteriaceae was associated with the presence of decubitus ulcers and prior exposure to ampicillin. Acquisition of resistant P aeruginosa was associated with total antibiotic exposure. Molecular typing of P aeruginosa isolates implicated patient-to-patient transmission of a limited number of resistant strains.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 01/1998; 18(12):809-13. · 4.02 Impact Factor