Article

A review of influenza haemagglutinin receptor binding as it relates to pandemic properties.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.77). 06/2012; 30(29):4369-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.02.076
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Haemagglutinin is a determinant of many viral properties, and successful adaptation to a human-like form is thought to be an important step toward pandemic influenza emergence. The availability of structurally distinct sialic acid linked receptors in the sites of human and avian influenza infection are generally held to account for the differences observed, but the relevance of other selection pressures has not been elucidated. There is evidence for genetic and structural constraints of haemagglutinin playing a role in restricting haemagglutinin adaptation, and also for differences in the selection pressure to alter binding, specifically when considering virus replication within host compared to transmission between hosts. Understanding which characteristics underlie such adaptations in humans is now possible in greater detail by using glycan arrays. However, results from these assays must also interpreted in context of an as yet still to be determined detailed knowledge of the structural diversity of sialic acids in the human respiratory tract. A clearer understanding of the evolutionary benefits conveyed by different haemagglutinin properties would have substantial impact and would affect the risk we allocate to viral propagation in different species, such as swine and poultry. Relevant to the H5N1 threat, current evidence also suggests that mortality associated with any emergent pandemic from current strains may be reduced if haemagglutinin specificity changes, further emphasising the importance of understanding how and if selection pressures in the human will cause such an alteration.

1 Bookmark
 · 
82 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infectious diseases cause millions of deaths worldwide each year and are a major burden for economies, especially in underdeveloped countries. Glycans and their interactions with other biomolecules are involved in all major steps of infection. Glycan arrays enable the rapid and sensitive detection of those interactions and are among the most powerful techniques to study the molecular biology of infectious diseases. This review will focus on recent developments and discuss the applications of glycan arrays to the elucidation of host-pathogen and pathogen-pathogen interactions, the development of tools for infection diagnosis and the use of glycan arrays in modern vaccine design.
    Current opinion in chemical biology 12/2013; 18C:38-45. · 8.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In February 2013, H7N9 (A/H7N9/2013_China), a novel avian influenza virus, broke out in eastern China and caused human death. It is a global priority to discover its origin and the point in time at which it will become transmittable between humans. We present here an interdisciplinary method to track the origin of H7N9 virus in China and to establish an evolutionary dynamics model for its human-to-human transmission via mutations. After comparing influenza viruses from China since 1983, we established an A/H7N9/2013_China virus evolutionary phylogenetic tree and found that the human instances of virus infection were of avian origin and clustered into an independent line. Comparing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of A/H7N9/2013_China viruses with all human-to-human, avian, and swine influenza viruses in China in the past 30 years, we found that A/H7N9/2013_China viruses originated from Baer's Pochard H7N1 virus of Hu Nan Province 2010 (HA gene, EPI: 370846, similarity with H7N9 is 95.5%) and duck influenza viruses of Nanchang city 2000 (NA gene, EPI: 387555, similarity with H7N9 is 97%) through genetic re-assortment. HA and NA gene sequence comparison indicated that A/H7N9/2013_China virus was not similar to human-to-human transmittable influenza viruses. To simulate the evolution dynamics required for human-to-human transmission mutations of H7N9 virus, we employed the Markov model. The result of this calculation indicated that the virus would acquire properties for human-to-human transmission in 11.3 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.2-11.3, HA gene).
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e93094. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to obtain self assembling, multivalent ligand for influenza virus hemagglutinin α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2-6)-d-galactopyranose has been synthesized and bonded to a water soluble fullerene derivative using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition click reaction. The aggregating amphiphilic compound did not inhibit the influenza virus hemagglutinin, but it proved to be an inhibitor of its neuraminidase with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 81μM.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 04/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor