A review of influenza haemagglutinin receptor binding as it relates to pandemic properties
ABSTRACT Haemagglutinin is a determinant of many viral properties, and successful adaptation to a human-like form is thought to be an important step toward pandemic influenza emergence. The availability of structurally distinct sialic acid linked receptors in the sites of human and avian influenza infection are generally held to account for the differences observed, but the relevance of other selection pressures has not been elucidated. There is evidence for genetic and structural constraints of haemagglutinin playing a role in restricting haemagglutinin adaptation, and also for differences in the selection pressure to alter binding, specifically when considering virus replication within host compared to transmission between hosts. Understanding which characteristics underlie such adaptations in humans is now possible in greater detail by using glycan arrays. However, results from these assays must also interpreted in context of an as yet still to be determined detailed knowledge of the structural diversity of sialic acids in the human respiratory tract. A clearer understanding of the evolutionary benefits conveyed by different haemagglutinin properties would have substantial impact and would affect the risk we allocate to viral propagation in different species, such as swine and poultry. Relevant to the H5N1 threat, current evidence also suggests that mortality associated with any emergent pandemic from current strains may be reduced if haemagglutinin specificity changes, further emphasising the importance of understanding how and if selection pressures in the human will cause such an alteration.
SourceAvailable from: Evelien Vanderlinden[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In order to obtain self assembling, multivalent ligand for influenza virus hemagglutinin α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2-6)-d-galactopyranose has been synthesized and bonded to a water soluble fullerene derivative using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition click reaction. The aggregating amphiphilic compound did not inhibit the influenza virus hemagglutinin, but it proved to be an inhibitor of its neuraminidase with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 81μM.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 04/2014; 24(11). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.04.032 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA vaccine coding for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) polyprotein gene and that for avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) gene have been shown to induce immunity and provide protection against the respective disease. The present study was carried out to determine whether an IBDV polyprotein gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene could trigger immune response to both IBDV and AIV. After transfection, VP2 and HA were detected in the cytoplasm and at cell membrane, respectively, by immunofluorescent antibody double staining method, suggesting the fusion strategy did not affect the location of protein expression. VP4 cleavage between VP2 and HA was confirmed by Western blot, indicating the fusion strategy did not affect VP4 function in transfected cells. After vaccination in chickens, the DNA construct VP24-HA/pcDNA induced ELISA and virus neutralizing antibodies against VP2 and hemagglutination inhibition antibody against the HA subtype. The results indicated that a single plasmid construct carrying IBDV VP243 gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene can elicit specific antibody responses to both IBDV and AIV by DNA vaccination.Journal of Virological Methods 01/2015; 211. DOI:10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.10.011 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza A virus (CIV) that showed high sequence similarities in hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes with those of non-pathogenic avian influenza viruses was isolated in our routine surveillance program in South Korea. We previously reported that the pathogenicity of this strain could be reproduced in dogs and cats. In the present study, the host tropism of H3N2 CIV was examined by experimental inoculation into several host species, including chickens, pigs, mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. The CIV infection resulted in no overt symptoms of disease in these host species. However, sero-conversion, virus shedding, and gross and histopathologic lung lesions were observed in guinea pig and ferrets but not in pigs, or mice. Based on the genetic similarity of our H3N2 CIV with currently circulating avian influenza viruses and the presence of α-2,3-linked rather than α-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors in the respiratory tract of dogs, we believed that this strain of CIV would have avian virus-like receptor specificity, but that seems to be contrary to our findings in the present study. Further studies are needed to determine the co-receptors of hemagglutinin or post-attachment factors related to virus internalization or pathogenesis in other animals.Virus Research 09/2014; 195. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.08.020 · 2.83 Impact Factor