Evasion from apoptotic cell death is reported to be a pivotal mechanism by which tumor cells acquire resistance to therapeutic treatment. Targeting the apoptotic pathways may constitute a promising strategy to counteract therapy resistance and to re-sensitize cancer cells. Expression of survivin, the smallest and structurally unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, has been shown to be associated with poor clinical outcome, more aggressive clinicopathologic features and resistance to both, conventional chemo and radiation therapy. Moreover, survivin detection in cancer tissue, in circulating tumor cells and in patient's serum has prognostic and predictive relevance and may display a prerequisite for marker based molecular therapies. Indeed, due to its universal over expression in malignant tissue, and its prominent role at disparate networks of cellular division, intracellular signaling, apoptosis and adaption to unfavorable surroundings, survivin has been shown to be a suitable target for a targeted therapy. The applicability of survivindriven strategies in clinical practice is currently under investigation as the first survivin antagonists (small molecule inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides and immunotherapy) successfully entered phase I/II trials. Taken together, these data provide a rationale for the implementation of both, survivin as a molecular diagnostic tool and survivin targeted therapies, within future clinical practice.
"Previous studies have shown that c-Myc is overexpressed  and functions as a proto-oncogene in AML ,; here, we show that inhibiting CCN1 down-regulated c-Myc protein expression. In AML, Bcl-xL acts as an anti-apoptotic factor, Bax acts as a pro-apoptotic factor , and Survivin is regarded as an anti-apoptotic factor . Our finding that inhibiting CCN1 down-regulated Bcl-xL and up-regulated Bax expression without affecting Survivin suggested that CCN1 regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of AML cells through c-Myc, Bcl-xL and Bax. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
CCN1 plays distinct roles in various tumor types, but little is known regarding the role of CCN1 in leukemia.
We analyzed CCN1 protein expression in leukemia cell lines and in AML bone marrow samples. We also evaluated the effects of antibody- or siRNA-mediated inhibition of CCN1 on the growth of two AML cell lines (U937 and Kasumi-1 cells) and on the MEK/ERK pathway, β-catenin and other related genes.
U937 and Kasumi-1 cells had markedly higher CCN1 expression than the 5 other leukemia cell lines, and CCN1 protein expression was higher in the AML bone marrow samples than in the normal bone marrow samples. Blocking CCN1 with an antibody in U937 and Kasumi-1 cells suppressed proliferation, increased apoptosis, down-regulated Bcl-xL and c-Myc expression, up-regulated Bax expression, and had no effect on Survivin. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of CCN1 inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of U937 and Kasumi-1 cells and increased cytarabine-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, CCN1 siRNA reduced MEK and ERK phosphorylation without affecting β-catenin; the CCN1 antibody similarly affected MEK and ERK phosphorylation. These changes in phosphorylation could influence the expression of Bcl-xL, c-Myc and Bax in AML cells.
The data suggested that CCN1 is a tumor promoter in AML that acts through the MEK/ERK pathway to up-regulate c-Myc and Bcl-xL and to down-regulate Bax.
Cancer Cell International 08/2014; 14(1):74. DOI:10.1186/s12935-014-0074-z · 2.77 Impact Factor
"Recently, we also reported that cervical carcinoma cells can secrete Survivin, generating an encapsulated extracellular pool of Survivin which can be taken up by other cancer cells enhancing their anti-apoptotic, proliferative, and metastatic potential  . Currently, three therapeutic strategies targeting survivin in cancer through immunotherapy, small molecule inhibitors, or antisense oligonucleotides are being evaluated or have completed Phase II clinical trials  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family and has multifunctional properties that include aspects of proliferation, invasion and cell survival control. Survivin is a promising candidate for targeted cancer therapy as its expression is associated with poor clinical outcome, more aggressive clinico-pathologic features, and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. In the present review the different properties of the Survivin splice variants are discussed and their activities correlated with different aspects of cancer cell biology, to include subcellular location. Special emphasis is placed on our current understanding of these Survivin splice variants influence on each other and on the phenotypic responses to therapy that they may control.
Cancer letters 06/2013; 339(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.06.007 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical development of siRNA cancer therapeutics is limited by the poor interstitial transport and inefficient transfection in solid tumors. We have shown that paclitaxel pretreatment, by inducing apoptosis, causes expansion of the interstitial space and thereby improves nanoparticle delivery and transport in tumor interstitium (referred to as paclitaxel tumor priming) and efficacy of nanomedicines in tumor-bearing animals. The present study evaluated whether paclitaxel tumor priming improves the delivery and transfection of siRNA in 2- and 3-dimensional cultures of human oropharyngeal carcinoma FaDu cells. We used the fluorescent siGLO and confocal microcopy to monitor transport, and used survivin siRNA and immunostaining and immunoblotting to monitor transfection. Survivin is a chemoresistance gene/protein, inducible by chemotherapy. siRNA was loaded in cationic liposomes. The results showed that pretreatment with 50-200 nM paclitaxel (24 or 48 h before siRNA) enhanced the total uptake of siGLO into monolayers (∼15%, p < 0.05), and the depth of penetration into 3-dimensional spheroids and tumor fragment histocultures (2.1- to 2.5-times greater area under the penetration-depth curve). In both monolayer cells and histocultures, paclitaxel pretreatment induced survivin upregulation (p < 0.05). Survivin siRNA alone decreased the survivin levels in a dose-dependent manner, and applying survivin siRNA after paclitaxel pretreatment completely abolished the paclitaxel-induced survivin increases. These findings indicate that paclitaxel tumor priming did not compromise the siRNA functionality. In summary, paclitaxel tumor priming improved the penetration, transfection and functionality of siRNA in tumors, thus offering a promising and practical means to develop chemo-siRNA cancer gene therapy.
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