Phase II study of CHOP-GR therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT We investigated a fixed scheme of combination chemotherapy protocol including CHOP, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and rituximab (CHOP-GR) for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a phase II clinical trial. Forty-four patients were registered: 21 patients <61 years of age in the low or low-intermediate International Prognostic Index (IPI) risk group and 23 patients between 61 and 70 years of age in any IPI risk group. The patients underwent two courses of CHOP chemotherapy followed by four courses of CHOP-GR, including subcutaneous G-CSF on days 11-14 and rituximab on day 15. An additional two courses of weekly rituximab were administered. Of the assessable 43 patients, complete remission occurred in 39 (91 %), partial remission in one (2 %), and progressive disease in three (7 %). In the median 53-month observation period in alive patients, the 5-year overall survival rate of the 43 patients was 77 % and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 69 % with a subsequent plateau. There were nine deaths in the 43 patients, all of which were attributable to lymphoma progression. The most frequent adverse events were leukocytopenia (98 %), neutropenia (94 %), lymphocytopenia (91 %), and alopecia (83 %). CHOP-GR is a safe and effective therapy for patients with untreated DLBCL.
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ABSTRACT: Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, and it is used to treat B-cell lymphomas. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is considered one of the mechanisms through which rituximab exerts its effects. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances the cytotoxicity of neutrophils through ADCC, and it can be speculated that a combination of rituximab and G-CSF may augment the treatment efficacy of rituximab. We administered rituximab with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) treatment with G-CSF to 15 patients with follicular lymphoma, and we investigated the safety and efficacy of this regimen. We investigated ADCC activity in neutrophils and the expression of cell surface antigens including Fcgamma receptor type I [FcgammaRI (CD64)] on neutrophils to determine the optimal dose of G-CSF. Adverse reactions occurred in 14 of 15 patients and consisted mainly of grade 3/4 hematological toxicity. The response rate was 100%, with complete remission in 12 patients (80%) and partial remission in 3 patients (20%). At 14 months, the median length of the observation period, 2 of 12 patients had relapsed. G-CSF administration increased both FcgammaRI expression and ADCC activity. There were no significant differences in the levels of FcgammaRI expression or ADCC activity between the 2 microg/kg G-CSF and 5 microg/kg G-CSF groups, indicating that the optimal dose of G-CSF was 2 microg/kg. We conclude that the combination of rituximab-CHOP and G-CSF is well tolerated. We plan to carry out a randomized trial to compare efficacy between rituximab-CHOP treatment and treatment with a combination of rituximab-CHOP and G-CSF.Clinical Cancer Research 07/2004; 10(12 Pt 1):4077-82. · 8.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Standardized guidelines for response assessment are needed to ensure comparability among clinical trials in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). To achieve this, two meetings were convened among United States and international lymphoma experts representing medical hematology/oncology, radiology, radiation oncology, and pathology to review currently used response definitions and to develop a uniform set of criteria for assessing response in clinical trials. The criteria that were developed include anatomic definitions of response, with normal lymph node size after treatment of 1.5 cm in the longest transverse diameter by computer-assisted tomography scan. A designation of complete response/unconfirmed was adopted to include patients with a greater than 75% reduction in tumor size after therapy but with a residual mass, to include patients-especially those with large-cell NHL-who may not have residual disease. Single-photon emission computed tomography gallium scans are encouraged as a valuable adjunct to assessment of patients with large-cell NHL, but such scans require appropriate expertise. Flow cytometric, cytogenetic, and molecular studies are not currently included in response definitions. Response rates may be the most important objective in phase II trials where the activity of a new agent is important and may provide support for approval by regulatory agencies. However, the goals of most phase III trials are to identify therapies that will prolong the progression-free survival, if not the overall survival, of the treated patients. We hope that these guidelines will serve to improve communication among investigators and comparability among clinical trials until clinically relevant laboratory and imaging studies are identified and become more widely available.Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/1999; 17(4):1244. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The definition and role of bulky disease in young patients (ie, aged 18-60 years) with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), who have been treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone)-like chemotherapy with or without rituximab, remain controversial. We aimed to assess the effect of maximum tumour diameter (MTD) in these patients. Patients from the MInT (Mabthera International Trial Group) study were eligible. We analysed event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) after CHOP-like chemotherapy with or without rituximab, according to MTD, by Martingale residual analyses and Cox regression models. Radiotherapy was given to sites of primary bulky disease according to national standards, and to primary extranodal disease at physician discretion. The primary endpoint was EFS and the secondary endpoint was OS. Analyses were by intention to treat. Of the 824 patients enrolled in the MInT study, the informed-consent form of one patient was missing, leaving 823 patients evaluable for intention-to-treat analysis. Data on MTD of involved sites were available for 802 patients. Martingale residual analysis showed an adverse prognostic effect of MTD on EFS and OS, which increased linearly. In a multivariable analysis with MTD as a linear regression variable, the effect of MTD was significant after CHOP-like treatment alone for EFS (hazard ratio 1.090 [95% CI 1.051-1.130], p < 0.0001) and OS (1.119 [1.057-1.184], p = 0.0001), and after CHOP-like treatment and rituximab for OS (1.089 [1.003-1.183], p = 0.043), but not for EFS (1.044 [0.991-1.099], p=0.103). For CHOP-like treatment alone, 3-year EFS ranged from 78.2% (MTD < 5.0 cm, 95% CI 68.3-85.4) to 41.3% (MTD > or = 10.0 cm, 31.8-50.4). For CHOP-like treatment and rituximab, 3-year EFS ranged from 83.2% (MTD < 5.0 cm, 72.8-89.9) to 72.7% (MTD > or = 10.0 cm, 63.8-79.7). With CHOP-like treatment alone, 3-year OS decreased from 92.9% (MTD < 5.0 cm, 84.9-96.8) to 73.5% (MTD > or = 10.0 cm, 63.9-81.0); for CHOP-like treatment and rituximab, 3-year OS decreased from 98.0% (MTD < 5.0 cm, 92.2-99.5) to 85.2% (MTD > or = 10.0 cm, 77.0-90.6). For CHOP-like treatment, any cut-off point between 5.0 cm and 10.0 cm separated two populations with a significant EFS difference (p < 0.0001 for all log-rank tests) and OS difference (p < or = 0.003 for all log-rank tests). For CHOP-like treatment and rituximab, only a cut-off point of 10.0 cm separated two populations with a significant EFS difference (log-rank p = 0.047), but any cut-off point of 6.0 cm or more separated two populations with a significant OS difference (log-rank p values 0.0009-0.037). Rituximab decreased, but did not eliminate the adverse prognostic effect of MTD in young patients with good-prognosis DLBCL. Due to the linear prognostic effect of MTD on outcome, arbitrary cut-off points for bulky disease can be set between 5.0 cm and 10.0 cm, depending on clinical considerations. Based on this study, a cut-off point of 10.0 cm might be a suitable margin in the rituximab era to delineate those patients with bulky disease.The Lancet Oncology 05/2008; 9(5):435-44. · 25.12 Impact Factor