Causes of death of mutation carriers in Finnish Lynch syndrome families.
ABSTRACT Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome including increased life-long risk for colorectal (CRC) and endometrial (EC) cancer, but also for cancers of other types. The risk for CRC is up to 70-80 % and for EC up to 50-60 %. Due to screening and early diagnosing the mortality related to CRC and EC seems to be low. In spite of many studies on surveillance of mutation carriers, there is no comprehensive evaluation on causes of death in LS families. The disease history and cause of death of all the deceased, tested mutation carriers and their mutation negative relatives in the Finnish LS families (N = 179) was examined utilizing hospital records and relevant national registries. Out of 1069 mutation carriers 151 had succumbed; 97 (64 %) from cancer. Out of 1146 mutation-negative family 44 members had died; 11 (25 %) of them from cancer. In 12 (7.7 %) of the deceased mutation carriers no cancer had been diagnosed. The mean age of death from cancer was 63.2 years vs. 68.8 years from non-cancer causes. Only 7.9 % of the patients with CRC had died from CRC and 5 % of those with EC, respectively. 61 % of the cancer deaths were related to extra-colonic, extra-endometrial cancers. The cumulative overall and cancer specific death rates were significantly increased in Mut+ compared to Mut- family members. Even surveillance yields decrease in the life-long risk and mortality of the most common cancers CRC and EC in LS, almost all mutation carriers will contract with cancer, and two thirds of the deceased have died from cancer. This should be taken in account in genetic counseling. Mutation carriers should be encouraged to seek help for abnormal symptoms.
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 04/2013; DOI:10.1038/nrgastro.2013.70 · 10.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of Lynch syndrome can lead to the prevention of colorectal cancer through periodic colonoscopies and removal of premalignant lesions in susceptible individuals. Therefore, predisposed individuals identified by mutation analysis are advised to inform their at-risk relatives about the options of predictive DNA testing and preventive measures. However, it has now been established that more than half of these relatives do not receive the necessary information. Barriers in conveying information include family communication problems and variable attitudes and practice among clinical geneticists. In this complex field, both medical, psychological, ethical and juridical aspects deserve consideration. Here we summarize the development of a revised guideline for clinical geneticists that allows a more active role of the geneticist, aimed at improving procedures to inform family members in Lynch syndrome and other hereditary and familial cancer syndromes.Familial Cancer 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10689-013-9636-9 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over half the cancer deaths in HNPCC families are due to extra-colonic malignancies that include endometrial and ovarian cancers. The benefits of surveillance for gynecological cancers are not yet proven and there is no consensus on the optimal surveillance recommendations for women with MMR mutations. We performed a systematic review of the literature and evaluated gynecological cancer risk in a series of 631 Polish HNPCC families classified into either Lynch Syndrome (LS, MMR mutations detected) or HNPCC (fulfillment of the Amsterdam or modified Amsterdam criteria). Published data clearly indicates no benefit for ovarian cancer screening in contrast to risk reducing surgery. We confirmed a significantly increased risk of OC in Polish LS families (OR = 4,6, p < 0.001) and an especially high risk of OC was found for women under 50 years of age: OR = 32,6, p < 0.0001 (95% CI 12,96-81,87). The cumulative OC risk to 50 year of life was calculated to be 10%. Six out of 19 (32%) early-onset patients from LS families died from OC within 2 years of diagnosis. We confirmed a significantly increased risk of EC (OR = 26, 95% CI 11,36-58,8; p < 0,001). The cumulative risk for EC in Polish LS families was calculated to be 67%. Due to the increased risk of OC and absence of any benefit from gynecological screening reported in the literature it is recommended that prophylactic oophorectomy for female carriers of MMR mutations after 35 year of age should be considered as a risk reducing option. Annual transvaginal ultrasound supported by CA125 or HE4 marker testing should be performed after prophylactic surgery in these women. Due to the high risk of EC it is reasonable to offer, after the age of 35 years, annual clinical gynecologic examinations with transvaginal ultrasound supported by routine aspiration sampling of the endometrium for women from either LS or HNPCC families. An alternative option, which could be taken into consideration for women preferring surgical prevention, is risk reducing total hysterectomy (with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) for carriers after childbearing is complete.Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 01/2015; 13(1):3. DOI:10.1186/s13053-015-0025-2 · 1.71 Impact Factor