Chen H, Ndhlovu ZM, Liu D, et al.. TCR clonotypes modulate the protective effect of HLA class I molecules in HIV-1 infection

Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Nature Immunology (Impact Factor: 20). 06/2012; 13(7):691-700. DOI: 10.1038/ni.2342
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The human leukocyte antigens HLA-B27 and HLA-B57 are associated with protection against progression of disease that results from infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet most people with alleles encoding HLA-B27 and HLA-B57 are unable to control HIV-1. Here we found that HLA-B27-restricted CD8(+) T cells in people able to control infection with HIV-1 (controllers) and those who progress to disease after infection with HIV-1 (progressors) differed in their ability to inhibit viral replication through targeting of the immunodominant epitope of group-associated antigen (Gag) of HIV-1. This was associated with distinct T cell antigen receptor (TCR) clonotypes, characterized by superior control of HIV-1 replication in vitro, greater cross-reactivity to epitope variants and enhanced loading and delivery of perforin. We also observed clonotype-specific differences in antiviral efficacy for an immunodominant HLA-B57-restricted response in controllers and progressors. Thus, the efficacy of such so-called 'protective alleles' is modulated by specific TCR clonotypes selected during natural infection, which provides a functional explanation for divergent HIV-1 outcomes.

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Available from: Dongfang Liu, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "Notably, in HIV elite controllers the reduced viral loads have been associated with cell-mediated immunity. Recent studies have shown that the HIV elite controllers have elevated numbers of high avidity polyfunctional cytotoxic HIV Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells in the mucosae compare to the HIV progressors [11] [12] [13]. HIV transmits mostly via the genital tract or rectal mucosa and the first CD4 T cell depletion occurs in the gut mucosae [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have established that the efficacy of a heterologous poxvirus vectored HIV vaccine, fowlpox virus (FPV)-HIV gag/pol prime followed by attenuated vaccinia virus (VV)-HIV gag/pol booster immunisation, is strongly influenced by the cytokine milieu at the priming vaccination site, with endogenous IL-13 detrimental to the quality of the HIV specific CD8+ T cell response induced. We have now developed a novel HIV vaccine that co-expresses a C-terminal deletion mutant of the mouse IL-4, deleted for the essential tyrosine (Y119) required for signalling. In our vaccine system, the mutant IL-4C118 can bind to IL-4 type I and II receptors with high affinity, and transiently prevent the signalling of both IL-4 and IL-13 at the vaccination site. When this IL-4C118 adjuvanted vaccine was used in an intranasal rFPV/intramuscular rVV prime-boost immunisation strategy, greatly enhanced mucosal/systemic HIV specific CD8+ T cells with higher functional avidity, expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 and greater protective efficacy were detected. Surprisingly, the IL-4C118 adjuvanted vaccines also induced robust long-lived HIV gag-specific serum antibody responses, specifically IgG1 and IgG2a. The p55-gag IgG2a responses induced were of a higher magnitude relative to the IL-13Rα2 adjuvant vaccine. More interestingly, our recently tested IL-13Rα2 adjuvanted vaccine which only inhibited IL-13 activity, even though induced excellent high avidity HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, had a detrimental impact on the induction of gag-specific IgG2a antibody immunity. Our observations suggest that (i) IL-4 cell-signalling in the absence of IL-13 retarded gag-specific antibody isotype class switching, or (ii) IL-13Rα2 signalling was involved in inducing good gag-specific B cell immunity. Thus, we believe our novel IL-4R antagonist adjuvant strategy offers great promise not only for HIV-1 vaccines, but also against a range of chronic infections where sustained high quality mucosal and systemic T and B cell immunity are required for protection.
    Vaccine 08/2014; 32(43). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.08.023 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    • "Here we have shown that motility directly supports target escape even when CD8+ T cell contact occurs. However, CD8+ T cells can and do contribute to spontaneous control of HIV in rare individuals [7], [32], [46], [47], [48] and vaccine-induced control in non-human primates [7], [8], [9], [49]. Multiple dimensions of CD8+ T cell activity have been correlated with control of HIV in vivo: these include high lytic capacity [48], functional avidity [50], β-chemokine expression [51], [52], polyfunctionality (i.e. "
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    ABSTRACT: The dissemination of HIV from an initial site of infection is facilitated by motile HIV-infected CD4(+) T-cells. However, the impact of infected target cell migration on antigen recognition by HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cells is unclear. Using a 3D in vitro model of tissue, we visualized dynamic interactions between HIV-infected or peptide-pulsed CD4(+) T-cells and HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cells. CTLs engaged motile HIV-infected targets, but ∼50% of targets broke contact and escaped. In contrast, immobilized target cells were readily killed, indicating target motility directly inhibits CD8(+) T-cell function. Strong calcium signals occurred in CTLs killing a motile target but calcium signaling was weak or absent in CTLs which permitted target escape. Neutralization of adhesion receptors LFA-1 and CD58 inhibited CD8(+) T-cell function within the 3D matrix, demonstrating that efficient motile target lysis as dependent on adhesive engagement of targets. Antigen sensitivity (a convolution of antigen density, TCR avidity and CD8 coreceptor binding) is also critical for target recognition. We modulated this parameter (known as functional avidity but referred to here as "avidity" for the sake of simplicity) by exploiting common HIV escape mutations and measured their impact on CTL function at the single-cell level. Targets pulsed with low avidity mutant antigens frequently escaped while CTLs killed targets bearing high avidity antigen with near-perfect efficiency. CTLs engaged, arrested, and killed an initial target bearing high avidity antigen within minutes, but serial killing was surprisingly rare. CD8 cells remained committed to their initial dead target for hours, accumulating TCR signals that sustained secretion of soluble antiviral factors. These data indicate that high-avidity CD8(+) T-cells execute an antiviral program in the precise location where antigen has been sensed: CTL effector functions are spatiotemporally coordinated with an early lytic phase followed by a sustained stationary secretory phase to control local viral infection.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e87873. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087873 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Immune escape is impeded by the elicitation of a diverse T cell response consisting of multiple specificities23, but these can vary significantly in antiviral efficacy456. Some induced responses effectively target both wild-type (WT) virus and naturally arising mutants, impeding the development of immune escape789. Others are readily detectable by tetramer staining, but exhibit little antiviral function in vitro, and appear to exert little immune selection pressure in vivo7. "
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    ABSTRACT: Immune control of viral infections is modulated by diverse T cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes engaging peptide-MHC class I complexes on infected cells, but the relationship between TCR structure and antiviral function is unclear. Here we apply in silico molecular modeling with in vivo mutagenesis studies to investigate TCR-pMHC interactions from multiple CTL clonotypes specific for a well-defined HIV-1 epitope. Our molecular dynamics simulations of viral peptide-HLA-TCR complexes, based on two independent co-crystal structure templates, reveal that effective and ineffective clonotypes bind to the terminal portions of the peptide-MHC through similar salt bridges, but their hydrophobic side-chain packings can be very different, which accounts for the major part of the differences among these clonotypes. Non-specific hydrogen bonding to viral peptide also accommodates greater epitope variants. Furthermore, free energy perturbation calculations for point mutations on the viral peptide KK10 show excellent agreement with in vivo mutagenesis assays, with new predictions confirmed by additional experiments. These findings indicate a direct structural basis for heterogeneous CTL antiviral function.
    Scientific Reports 02/2014; 4:4087. DOI:10.1038/srep04087 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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