Article

Role of Apoptosis in disease

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Universita' "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, Italy.
Aging (Impact Factor: 4.89). 05/2012; 4(5):330-49.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since the initial description of apoptosis, a number of different forms of cell death have been described. In this review we will focus on classic caspase-dependent apoptosis and its variations that contribute to diseases. Over fifty years of research have clarified molecular mechanisms involved in apoptotic signaling as well and shown that alterations of these pathways lead to human diseases. Indeed both reduced and increased apoptosis can result in pathology. More recently these findings have led to the development of therapeutic approaches based on regulation of apoptosis, some of which are in clinical trials or have entered medical practice.

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    • "With apoptosis, there exists an early phase that consists of the loss of plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylserine asymmetry that can identify cells for disposal by microglia in the nervous system (Schutters and Reutelingsperger, 2010; Wei et al., 2013; Williams and Dexter, 2014). A later phase in apoptosis results in cell death with DNA degradation (Chong et al., 2005b, 2006; Favaloro et al., 2012; Folch et al., 2012; Shao et al., 2013; Nguyen et al., 2014). During DM, apoptosis results in the death of neurons (Das et al., 2011; Aksu et al., 2012; Kimura et al., 2013; Mao et al., 2014), pancreatic β-cell loss (Deng et al., 2009; Choi et al., 2010; Miao et al., 2013), and endothelial cell destruction (Chong et al., 2007; Hou et al., 2010b; Hamed et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2012; Arunachalam et al., 2014). "
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    • "Several possibilities are discussed. Survivin seems to exert its activity through the inhibition of caspase activities (Zaffaroni et al., 2005; Adamkov et al., 2009b; Favaloro et al., 2012). Caspases can be inactivated either by overexpression of endogenous caspase inhibitors, by direct mutations within the caspase coding genes or by silencing of the corresponding promoters via methylation (Jones, 2001; Angell, 2008). "
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    • "Apoptosis has been widely believed to play an important role in tissue development and homoeostasis maintenance. Dysregulation in the normal apoptotic process often leads to malignant transformation of cells (Favaloro et al., 2012; Brown and Attardi, 2005). In mammalian cells, apoptosis is initiated primarily by two pathways (Hengartner, 2000). "
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