Role of Apoptosis in disease

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Universita' "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, Italy.
Aging (Impact Factor: 4.89). 05/2012; 4(5):330-49.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since the initial description of apoptosis, a number of different forms of cell death have been described. In this review we will focus on classic caspase-dependent apoptosis and its variations that contribute to diseases. Over fifty years of research have clarified molecular mechanisms involved in apoptotic signaling as well and shown that alterations of these pathways lead to human diseases. Indeed both reduced and increased apoptosis can result in pathology. More recently these findings have led to the development of therapeutic approaches based on regulation of apoptosis, some of which are in clinical trials or have entered medical practice.

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Available from: Nerino Allocati, Aug 17, 2015
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    • "With apoptosis, there exists an early phase that consists of the loss of plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylserine asymmetry that can identify cells for disposal by microglia in the nervous system (Schutters and Reutelingsperger, 2010; Wei et al., 2013; Williams and Dexter, 2014). A later phase in apoptosis results in cell death with DNA degradation (Chong et al., 2005b, 2006; Favaloro et al., 2012; Folch et al., 2012; Shao et al., 2013; Nguyen et al., 2014). During DM, apoptosis results in the death of neurons (Das et al., 2011; Aksu et al., 2012; Kimura et al., 2013; Mao et al., 2014), pancreatic β-cell loss (Deng et al., 2009; Choi et al., 2010; Miao et al., 2013), and endothelial cell destruction (Chong et al., 2007; Hou et al., 2010b; Hamed et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2012; Arunachalam et al., 2014). "
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    Neural Regeneration Research 04/2015; 10(4):518-528. DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.155427 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Several possibilities are discussed. Survivin seems to exert its activity through the inhibition of caspase activities (Zaffaroni et al., 2005; Adamkov et al., 2009b; Favaloro et al., 2012). Caspases can be inactivated either by overexpression of endogenous caspase inhibitors, by direct mutations within the caspase coding genes or by silencing of the corresponding promoters via methylation (Jones, 2001; Angell, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mismatch repair genes (MMR) play an essential role in DNA repair. MMR mutations predominantly in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and rarely in PMS1, may cause the production of abnormally short or inactivated proteins. The antiapoptotic protein survivin functions in the inhibition of apoptosis, regulation of cell division and also enhances angiogenesis. Both MMRP and survivin are considered to be powerful prognostic parameters. This study was designed to determine the relationship between MMRP and survivin in colon lesions. The study included 113 cases of colon carcinoma and 51 cases of colon polyps. Survivin expression and MMRP status were assessed by immunohistochemistry. In each section, expression, intensity of immunostaining and percentage of labeled cells were analyzed. In carcinomas, immunoreaction was detected in 100/113 cases for MLH1 (88.5%), 112/113 cases for MSH2 (99.1%), 110/113 cases for MSH6 (97.3%), and 103/113 cases for PMS2 (91.2%). Survivin was shown in 47/113 cases (41.6%). The statistical analysis confirmed a significant correlation between the expression of MMRP and survivin in the assessed parameters. All 51 polyp samples were positive for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Only 8 of those (15.7%) were positive for survivin. Statistically significant differences were observed between the expression of MMRP and survivin. In conclusion, this study revealed that MMRP may suppress the antiapoptotic function of survivin through p53 inactivation of its promoter in grade 1 and grade 2 colon carcinomas.
    Acta histochemica 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.acthis.2014.04.005. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Apoptosis has been widely believed to play an important role in tissue development and homoeostasis maintenance. Dysregulation in the normal apoptotic process often leads to malignant transformation of cells (Favaloro et al., 2012; Brown and Attardi, 2005). In mammalian cells, apoptosis is initiated primarily by two pathways (Hengartner, 2000). "
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