Micro- and nanostructures and their application in gas chromatography

Saarland University, Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Campus B2.2, Germany.
The Analyst (Impact Factor: 4.11). 06/2012; 137(14):3195-201. DOI: 10.1039/c2an35184f
Source: PubMed


This mini-review focuses on the latest developments in the field of micro- and nanostructures in gas chromatography (GC). Significant progress has been made in recent years in designing miniaturized structures, for example, structures based on cyclodextrins. These are now commercially available and thus not the topic of this short review. Rather, we concentrate here on on-going research activities on nanoparticles, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and metal-organic framework (MOF) supports as well as state-of-the-art column geometries, with particular emphasis on lab-on-a-chip columns, which undoubtedly will find their way into regular GC developments in the future.

16 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A controllable and high-yield surface functionalization of silicon microchannels using layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of SiO2 nanoparticles (SNPs) is presented. The application of SNPs (45 nm average diameter) coating as a stationary phase for chromatographic separation is also demonstrated with surface functionalization using chloroalkylsilanes. This method facilitates a simple, low-cost and parallel processing scheme that also provides homogenous and stable nanoparticle based stationary phases with ease of control over the coating thickness. The SNP-functionalized microfabricated columns with either single capillary channels (1 m-long, 150 µm-wide, 240 µm-deep) or very narrow multicapillary channels (25 cm-long, 30 µm-wide, 240 µm-deep, 16 parallel channels) successfully separated a multicomponent gas mixture with a wide range of boiling points with high reproducibility.
    Analytical Chemistry 07/2013; 85(17). DOI:10.1021/ac401080u · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review covers the recent development of stationary phases for chip-based gas chromatography (GC). Portable systems for rapid and reliable analysis are urgently needed. One way to achieve this is to miniaturize the entire analysis. Because the column is the central component of the GC system and determines the feasibility and quality of separation, this review focuses on stationary phases reported in the literature and their use in different fields during the last two decades, with emphasis on different methods for introducing the stationary phase into the GC column.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 08/2013; 406(4). DOI:10.1007/s00216-013-7168-7 · 3.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1.1 Introduction Nowadays, the term miniaturization is applied to a wide spectrum of knowledge areas, including, among others, engineering, physics, medicine, materials science, com-puter science and chemistry. A search on the ISI Web of Knowledge provided approxi-mately 42000 results by entering the term miniaturization, from which around 5200 results are devoted to chemistry. The number of publications concerning the min-iaturization of chemical systems has experienced an important increase in the last two decades, as has the number of citations received by these publications, as shown in Figure 1.1. In accordance with the ISI Web of Knowledge, they currently receive around 12000 citations per year. Nevertheless, this is only the tip of the iceberg since the number of publications devoted to the development and application of miniatur-ized analytical systems (but not referring to miniaturization in the title or abstract sections) are not included. In the broadest sense of the word, miniaturization can be defined as the produc-tion of novel systems that are substantially reduced in size in comparison with con-ventional systems. In analytical chemistry, the term miniaturization does not refer solely to the scaling-down of analytical instrumentation, apparatus and devices since it is also applicable when the components (including chemicals and solvents) needed to perform analytical operations are employed on a greatly reduced scale. In fact, size reduction is not the main driving force when shrinking analytical systems, as can be deduced from section 1.2. It is worth noting that the term miniaturization has been mainly employed in the analytical chemistry literature to refer to the micro-total anal-ysis systems (µ-TAS) and lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. Even though they represent the highest degree of downsizing, the concept of miniaturization should be observed from a broader, non-exclusive perspective since this concept includes the advances achieved in every single step of the analytical process. A recent trend in analytical chemistry is a progression towards the miniaturiza-tion of analytical systems. Different steps of the analytical process, including sample preparation, analytical separation and detection have been subjected to miniaturiza-tion, automation and portability. In addition, the integration of different analytical steps has allowed the development of fully miniaturized systems. The
    Miniaturization in sample preparation, Edited by Francisco Pena-Pereira, 12/2014;

Marc Mittermüller