Hypothesis: holiday sudden cardiac death: food and alcohol inhibition of SULT1A enzymes as a precipitant.
ABSTRACT Sudden cardiac death is a significant health issue, causing millions of deaths worldwide annually. Studies have found that the likelihood of such death is higher in winter. Further studies identified that the highest likelihood occurs on Christmas Day and New Years Day, but not the interim period. Thanksgiving, Independence Day and the Islamic holiday Eid Al-Fitr also show significant increases in the rate of cardiac events or death. A number of mechanisms have been proposed, but none have satisfactorily explained the evidence. This article reviews the data supporting the existence of a holiday cardiac death phenomenon, the involvement of catecholamines and the normal modes of human catecholamine deactivation. Further evidence is reviewed that supports a hypothesized mechanism whereby critical SULT1A catecholamine deactivation enzymes can in some patients be inhibited by naturally-occurring phenols and polyphenols in foods and alcohols. If deactivation is inhibited by holiday consumption excesses, holiday stress or excitement could lead to a buildup of catecholamines that can cause fatal arrhythmias. Awareness of this mechanism could reduce deaths, both through doctor/patient education leading to a moderation in consumption and through the potential identification of patients with a predisposition to SULT1A inhibition. This hypothesis also raises parallels between sudden cardiac death in adults and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The possible involvement of SULT1A inhibition in SIDS is discussed.
Article: The effects of maternal dietary treatments with natural PPAR ligands on lipid metabolism in fetuses from control and diabetic rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Maternal diabetes impairs fetal development and growth. We studied the effects of maternal diets enriched in unsaturated fatty acids capable of activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) on the concentrations of 15deoxyDelta12,14PGJ2 (15dPGJ2), lipid mass, and the de novo lipid synthesis in 13.5-day fetuses from control and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by neonatal streptozotocin administration (90 mg/kg). Rats were treated with a standard diet supplemented or not with 6% olive oil or 6% safflower oil from days 0.5 to 13.5 of gestation. Fetuses from diabetic rats fed with the standard diet showed reduced 15dPGJ2 concentrations, whereas maternal treatments with olive and safflower oils increased 15dPGJ2 concentrations. Fetuses from diabetic rats showed increased concentrations of phospholipids and increased synthesis of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and free fatty acids. Diabetic rat treatments with olive and safflower oils reduced phospholipids, cholesterol, and free fatty acid concentrations and the de novo lipid synthesis in the fetuses. These effects were different from those observed in fetuses from control rats, and seem not to involve PPARgamma activation. In conclusion, olive oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets provide beneficial effects in maternal diabetes, as they prevent fetal impairments in 15dPGJ2 concentrations, lipid synthesis and lipid accumulation.Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 11/2008; 79(6):191-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) could be caused by long-QT syndrome (LQTS) has been supported by molecular studies. However, there are inadequate data regarding the true prevalence of mutations in arrhythmia-susceptibility genes among SIDS cases. Given the importance and potential implications of these observations, we performed a study to more accurately quantify the contribution to SIDS of LQTS gene mutations and rare variants. Molecular screening of 7 genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNJ2, CAV3) associated with LQTS was performed with denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and nucleotide sequencing of genomic DNA from 201 cases diagnosed as SIDS according to the Nordic Criteria, and from 182 infant and adult controls. All SIDS and control cases originated from the same regions in Norway. Genetic analysis was blinded to diagnosis. Mutations and rare variants were found in 26 of 201 cases (12.9%). On the basis of their functional effect, however, we considered 8 mutations and 7 rare variants found in 19 of 201 cases as likely contributors to sudden death (9.5%; 95% CI, 5.8 to 14.4%). We demonstrated that 9.5% of cases diagnosed as SIDS carry functionally significant genetic variants in LQTS genes. The present study demonstrates that sudden arrhythmic death is an important contributor to SIDS. As these variants likely modify ventricular repolarization and QT interval duration, our results support the debated concept that an ECG would probably identify most infants at risk for sudden death due to LQTS either in infancy or later on in life.Circulation 02/2007; 115(3):361-7. · 14.74 Impact Factor