Within the last few decades, the incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C infections have decreased among kidney disease patients. Significant advances have been made in the prevention of hepatitis B and C virus transmission in these high-risk populations; however, the transmission risk is still not negligible. Viral hepatitis infections represent a significant problem among kidney disease patients; patients on regular dialysis, as well as renal transplant recipients (RTRs) due to their epidemiological, virological, and clinical features. Chronic hepatitis B and C have a strong impact on the clinical course of kidney disease as well as on the clinical course after kidney transplantation. The purpose of this review is to focus on the epidemiology, transmission modes, natural courses, and treatment options of hepatitis B and C infections in both chronic kidney disease patients and RTRs.
"The failure to complete a full course of HBV vaccination also impairs the immunization response [32, 33]. Although acute infection tends to be mild and asymptomatic in dialysis patients, up to two-thirds may progress to chronic carriage, with significant risk of chronic liver disease, premature death from cirrhosis or liver cancer, and nosocomial transmission within hemodialysis units [34–36]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious global health problem.The prevalence of viral hepatitis is higher in dialysis patients than in the general population because of the opportunity for exposure during the dialysis procedure. Immunization is the most effective way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hence the development of acute or chronic hepatitis B. It is well established that patients with end-stage renal disease including dialysis-dependent patients, have an impaired immune response to hepatitis B vaccine. End stage renal diseases (ESRD) patients have lower seroconversion rates compared with the subjects with intact renal function. Moreover, even after the completion of vaccination schedule anti-hepatitis B (anti-HBs) titers of responder dialysis, patients are low and decline logarithmically with time. The impaired efficacy of HBV vaccine in patients with ESRD has been attributed to numerous factors such as immune compromise because of uremia and some other factors. One approach to improve the immunogenicity of existing HBV vaccines is adjuvantation, and it's very important to find more effective adjutants for improving HBV vaccine efficacy. In this paper we have a brief review on recently known new ways for improving HBV vaccine efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
It has been reported a slow progression of hepatitis B in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis, and a role of dialysis session per se has been suggested. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the kinetics of the hepatitis B viral load (HBV DNA) in serum during haemodialysis sessions using a highly sensitive technique; the role of interferon-α in lowering HBV viral load in such patients was also investigated.
HBV DNA was determined in 24 HBsAg positive patients on maintenance hemodialysis immediately before and after a 4-hour hemodialysis session, the same measurements were repeated 48 and 72 hours later. HBV DNA quantitation was performed by a novel RealTime PCR assay. Serum IFN-α levels were tested in parallel in a subset of HD sessions (n=40) by ELISA.
20 (83%) HBsAg positive patients had detectable HBV DNA in serum. Positive status for HBV DNA in serum was not predicted by demographic, clinical or biochemical parameters. HBV load decreased in many patients after hemodialysis sessions 5.92 log10 IU/mL (95% CI, 5.34 to 6.28 log10 IU/mL) vs. 4.79 log10 IU/mL (95% CI, 4.23 to 6.15 log10 IU/mL) (P=0.02). A significant relationship between mean HBV DNA levels before dialysis and percentage reduction of HBV DNA during HD sessions occurred [F-test=5.41, rho (least squares)=0.307]. Increase of serum IFN-α levels was found in a minority (3/40=7%) of HD sessions.
Hemodialysis procedure gives reduction of HBV load in HBsAg chronic carriers; no relationship with IFN-α activity during HD sessions was found. The kinetics of HBV viremia in HD procedures could explain the low viral load which is typically observed in these patients. Further studies to identify the mechanisms responsible for reduction of HBV viremia during HD procedures are under way.
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 09/2013; 37(4-5):286-294. DOI:10.1159/000350156 · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) poses a major health threat worldwide, where the magnitude and overburden of chronic carrier state approaches 150 million chronic carriers. The prevalence of HBV is greater among dialyzed patients compared to the general population owing to their increased vulnerability to blood and its products, along with hazards posed by contaminated hemodialysis tools and devices. An electronic systematic search of the published literature was carried and data on the immunological riposte to hepatitis B vaccination among hemodialysis patients was extracted from relevant studies. End stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis have a lower or an absolutely negative riposte to HBV vaccine. Several means have been tried to improve this response with some success, nevertheless none have been universally adopted. Genetic investigations are foreseen to make a break through concerning HBV vaccination
World Journal of Hepatology 02/2015; 7(2): 270-275(7(2):):7(2): 270-275. DOI:10.4254/wjh.v7.i2.270
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