This study examines if bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) grafting provides improved outcomes compared with single internal thoracic artery (SITA) grafting, in the modern era, in which diabetes mellitus and obesity are more prevalent.
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons database at a single large academic center was reviewed for all consecutive isolated coronary artery bypass grafting patients with two or more distal anastomoses from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2010. Propensity-adjusted logistic and Cox regression models were used to estimate the effect of BITA on short-term outcomes and long-term survival for diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
A total of 3,527 coronary artery bypass grafting operations (812 BITA, 2,715 SITA) were performed. Fewer BITA than SITA patients had diabetes (28.6% vs 44.7% p<0.001). There was no significant difference in 30-day rates of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction between nondiabetic patients who had BITA vs SITA, or between diabetic patients who had BITA vs SITA. BITA grafting conferred a 35% reduction (95% confidence interval, 12% to 52%, p=0.006) in the long-term hazard of death equally for nondiabetic and diabetic patients (p=0.93). Deep sternal wound infection was more common among diabetic than among nondiabetic patients (1.5% vs 0.7%), but was similar within nondiabetic (1.0% vs 0.6%) and diabetic patients (1.7% vs 1.5%) who had BITA vs SITA. Overall, BITA and SITA patients had similar rates of deep sternal wound infection (1.2% vs 1.0%).
BITA grafting confers a long-term survival advantage and should be performed whenever suitable coronary anatomy exists and patient risk factors allow an acceptable risk of deep sternal wound infection.
"Puskas indicates statistically more significant long-term survival of patients (up to 35% higher) in whom both of the mammary arteries were used to surgically revascularise the myocardium. He found no difference in the DSWI incidence between patients after the harvesting of one, or both mammary arteries . In the retrospective study involving over 1.5 million patients, Itagaki "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Median sternotomy is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the treatment of heart conditions in both adults and children. Deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) present a serious complication occurring after surgery, highly demanding both of patients and surgery departments. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 9110 patients who underwent a cardiac surgery at the Center of Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantations, Brno, Czech Republic, in the years 2005–12, and as its objective it has a definition of risk factors of DSWI after median sternotomy.
Cor et vasa 03/2015; 57(2). DOI:10.1016/j.crvasa.2015.02.014
"Our results suggested that perioperative complications do not increase with the use of BIMAs. These results have been supported by subsequent papers  . The low morbidity and mortality rates in our series are likely due to the continuous evolution of technology and the adoption of less invasive options for CABG patients. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG), the combined use of Left and Right Internal Mammary Arteries (LIMA and RIMA) - collectively known as Bilateral IMAs (BIMAs) provides a survival advantage over the use of LIMA alone. However, gene expression in RIMA has never been compared to that in LIMA. Here we report a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of BIMA to investigate the expression profiles of these conduits in patients undergoing CABG. As expected, in comparing the BIMAs to the aorta, we found differences in pathways and processes associated with atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cell signaling - processes which provide biological support for the observation that BIMA grafts provide long-term benefits to the patients and protect against continued atherosclerosis and supporting the widespread use of BIMAs as the preferred conduits in CABG.
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