Chromosome maintenance protein 1 (CRM1) is a nuclear export receptor involved in the active transport of tumor suppressors (e.g., p53 and nucleophosmin) whose function is altered in cancer because of increased expression and overactive transport. Blocking CRM1-mediated nuclear export of such proteins is a novel therapeutic strategy to restore tumor suppressor function. Orally bioavailable selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) that irreversibly bind to CRM1 and block the function of this protein have been recently developed. Here we investigated the antileukemic activity of KPT-SINE (KPT-185 and KPT-276) in vitro and in vivo in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). KPT-185 displayed potent antiproliferative properties at submicromolar concentrations (IC50 values; 100-500 nM), induced apoptosis (average 5-fold increase), cell-cycle arrest, and myeloid differentiation in AML cell lines and patient blasts. A strong down-regulation of the oncogene FLT3 after KPT treatment in both FLT3-ITD and wild-type cell lines was observed. Finally, using the FLT3-ITD-positive MV4-11 xenograft murine model, we show that treatment of mice with oral KPT-276 (analog of KPT-185 for in vivo studies) significantly prolongs survival of leukemic mice (P < .01). In summary, KPT-SINE are highly potent in vitro and in vivo in AML. The preclinical results reported here support clinical trials of KPT-SINE in AML.
"Previous studies showed that LMB induced p53 activation, suggesting this was the key to inducing growth arrest associated with apoptosis in prostate cancers (Lecane et al, 2003), neuroblastomas (Smart et al, 1999), and melanoma (Pathria et al, 2012). Recently, a study showed that p53 was a critical mediator of KPT-induced differentiation and apoptosis of acute myeloid leukaemia cells (Ranganathan et al, 2012). Interestingly, we observed that KPT-330 induced apoptosis in both p53-wt and -mut NSCLC cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We investigated the biologic and pharmacologic activities of a chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) inhibitor against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells both in vitro and in vivo.
The in vitro and in vivo effects of a novel CRM1 inhibitor (KPT-330) for a large number of anticancer parameters were evaluated using a large panel of 11 NSCLC cell lines containing different key driver mutations. Mice bearing human NSCLC xenografts were treated with KPT-330, and tumour growth was assessed.
KPT-330 inhibited proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-related proteins in 11 NSCLC cells lines. Moreover, the combination of KPT-330 with cisplatin synergistically enhanced the cell kill of the NSCLC cells in vitro. Human NSCLC tumours growing in immunodeficient mice were markedly inhibited by KPT-330. Also, KPT-330 was effective even against NSCLC cells with a transforming mutation of either exon 20 of EGFR, TP53, phosphatase and tensin homologue, RAS or PIK3CA, suggesting the drug might be effective against a variety of lung cancers irrespective of their driver mutation.
Our results support clinical testing of KPT-330 as a novel therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.
British Journal of Cancer 06/2014; DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.260 · 4.84 Impact Factor
"Unlike, Leptomycin B that form an irreversible covalent bond with Cys528 of CRM1, KPT-185 bind to CRM1 in a slowly reversible fashion, which might contribute to the improved tolerability of the SINE compounds. SINE block nuclear export of TSPs thereby inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis specifically in cancer cells [20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28]. Earlier, our group has studied the impact of CRM1 inhibtion in PDAC models and the downstream signaling analysis . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome maintenance region 1 (CRM1) also called Exportin 1 (Xpo1), a protein found elevated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), blocks tumor suppressor protein (TSP) function through constant nuclear export. Earlier we had shown that targeting CRM1 by our newly developed specific inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) leads to inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth arrest. In this paper we define the mechanism of SINE action. Our lead SINE KPT-185 inhibits PDAC cell growth, cell migration, tumor invasion and induces apoptosis and G2-M cell cycle arrest in low nano molar range (IC50s~150 nM). Mechanistically we demonstrate that the activity of KPT-185 is associated with nuclear retention of Fbw7; which degrades nuclear Notch-1 leading to decreased tumor promoting markers such as C-Myc, Cyclin-D1, Hes1 and VEGF. The orally bioavailable SINE (KPT-251) showed potent anti-tumor activity in a Colo-357 PDAC xenografts model; residual tumor analysis showed activation of Fbw7 concomitant with attenuation of Notch1 and its downstream genes. These results suggest that the antitumor activity of KPT-185 is in part due to nuclear retention of Fbw7 and consequent Notch1 degradation. The new CRM1 inhibitors, therefore, hold strong potential and warrant further clinical investigations for PDAC.
"SINE compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis and block proliferation in several cancer cell lines, including those derived from colon , pancreas , and breast carcinomas  as well as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) , while sparing normal cells . Additional studies have shown potent anti cancer activity and good tolerability of SINE in vivo using mouse human xenograft (subcutaneous, orthotopic, or leukemograft) models of pancreatic cancer , renal cancer , CLL , mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) , multiple myeloma  and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) . These data support the notion that SINE compounds will have biologic activity in humans with cancer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds that inhibit the function of the nuclear export protein Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) against canine tumor cell lines and perform a Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 in dogs with spontaneous cancer to provide a preliminary assessment of biologic activity and tolerability.
Canine tumor cell lines derived from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), mast cell tumor, melanoma and osteosarcoma exhibited growth inhibition and apoptosis in response to nanomolar concentrations of SINE compounds; NHL cells were particularly sensitive with IC50 concentrations ranging from 2-42 nM. A Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 was performed in 17 dogs with NHL (naive or relapsed), mast cell tumor or osteosarcoma. The maximum tolerated dose was 1.75 mg/kg given orally twice/week (Monday/Thursday) although biologic activity was observed at 1 mg/kg. Clinical benefit (CB) including partial response to therapy (PR, n = 2) and stable disease (SD, n = 7) was observed in 9/14 dogs with NHL with a median time to progression (TTP) for responders of 66 days (range 35-256 days). A dose expansion study was performed in 6 dogs with NHL given 1.5 mg/kg KPT-335 Monday/Wednesday/Friday; CB was observed in 4/6 dogs with a median TTP for responders of 83 days (range 35-354 days). Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal consisting of anorexia, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea and were manageable with supportive care, dose modulation and administration of low dose prednisone; hepatotoxicity, anorexia and weight loss were the dose limiting toxicities.
This study provides evidence that the novel orally bioavailable XPO1 inhibitor KPT-335 is safe and exhibits activity in a relevant, spontaneous large animal model of cancer. Data from this study provides critical new information that lays the groundwork for evaluation of SINE compounds in human cancer.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e87585. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087585 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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