Preclinical activity of a novel CRM1 inhibitor in acute myeloid leukemia
ABSTRACT Chromosome maintenance protein 1 (CRM1) is a nuclear export receptor involved in the active transport of tumor suppressors (e.g., p53 and nucleophosmin) whose function is altered in cancer because of increased expression and overactive transport. Blocking CRM1-mediated nuclear export of such proteins is a novel therapeutic strategy to restore tumor suppressor function. Orally bioavailable selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) that irreversibly bind to CRM1 and block the function of this protein have been recently developed. Here we investigated the antileukemic activity of KPT-SINE (KPT-185 and KPT-276) in vitro and in vivo in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). KPT-185 displayed potent antiproliferative properties at submicromolar concentrations (IC50 values; 100-500 nM), induced apoptosis (average 5-fold increase), cell-cycle arrest, and myeloid differentiation in AML cell lines and patient blasts. A strong down-regulation of the oncogene FLT3 after KPT treatment in both FLT3-ITD and wild-type cell lines was observed. Finally, using the FLT3-ITD-positive MV4-11 xenograft murine model, we show that treatment of mice with oral KPT-276 (analog of KPT-185 for in vivo studies) significantly prolongs survival of leukemic mice (P < .01). In summary, KPT-SINE are highly potent in vitro and in vivo in AML. The preclinical results reported here support clinical trials of KPT-SINE in AML.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In order to pass through the nuclear pore complex, proteins larger than ∼40 kDa require specific nuclear transport receptors. Defects in nuclear-cytoplasmatic transport affect fundamental processes such as development, inflammation and oxygen sensing. The transcriptional response to O2 deficiency is controlled by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). These are heterodimeric transcription factors of each ∼100-120 kDa proteins, consisting of one out of three different O2-labile α subunits (primarily HIF-1α) and a more constitutive 1β subunit. In the presence of O2, the α subunits are hydroxylated by specific prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain proteins (PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3) and an asparaginyl hydroxylase (factor inhibiting HIF-1, FIH-1). The prolyl hydroxylation causes recognition by von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL), ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation. The activity of the oxygen sensing machinery depends on dynamic intracellular trafficking. Nuclear import of HIF-1α and HIF-1β is mainly mediated by importins α and β (α/β). HIF-1α can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm, while HIF-1β is permanently inside the nucleus. pVHL is localized to both compartments. Nuclear import of PHD1 relies on a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and uses the classical import pathway involving importin α/β receptors. PHD2 shows an atypical NLS, and its nuclear import does not occur via the classical pathway. PHD2-mediated hydroxylation of HIF-1α occurs predominantly in the cell nucleus. Nuclear export of PHD2 involves a nuclear export signal (NES) in the N-terminus and depends on the export receptor chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1). Nuclear import of PHD3 is mediated by importin α/β receptors and depends on a non-classical NLS. Specific modification of the nuclear translocation of the three PHD isoforms could provide a promising strategy for the development of new therapeutic substances to tackle major diseases.Journal of Molecular Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00109-015-1276-0 · 4.74 Impact Factor
Journal of Hematology & Oncology 01/2014; 7(46). · 4.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Regulated nucleo-cytoplasmic transport plays a major role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1 or exportin 1 or XPO 1) is responsible for the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of more than 200 proteins, including most of the tumor suppressor proteins (TSP). CRM1 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma, glioma, cervical and hematological malignancies. This inspired the development of novel agents that selectively inhibit nuclear exportins (SINEs). In this review we focus on the significance of CRM1 in carcinogenesis and review the new development of SINE inhibitiors in hematological malignancies. Selinexor (KPT-330) as the first-in-human SINE agent represents this novel class of anti-cancer agents.03/2015; 4:7. DOI:10.1186/s40164-015-0002-5