Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2, alopecia universalis and Crohn's disease.
ABSTRACT Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are defined as a spectrum of association between 2 or more organ specific endocrinopaties and non-endocrine autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes type 2 is characterized by the coexistence of adrenal failure with autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1. Inflammatory bowel diseases are rarely associated with these autoimmune disorders. Here, we report about a case of 33years old male with known history of Crohn's colitis diagnosed in childhood. In 2003 the patient experienced sudden loss of hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard and body hair - alopecia universalis was diagnosed. At the age of 28, the patient was hospitalized with severe dehydration and clinical signs of ketoacidosis. Increased blood glucose (40mmol/L), ketonuria and metabolic acidosis indicated diabetes mellitus type 1. In 2005, he had severe relapse of Crohn's disease and was treated with systemic corticosteroid. Although patient responded well to the induction therapy, fatigue, hypotension, bradycardia called for further investigations: free thyroxine - 6.99pmol/L, thyroid-stimulating hormone >75U/ml, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies >1000U/mL, so diagnosis of Haschimoto thyroiditis was confirmed. Persistent hypotension and fatigue, recurrent hypoglycemic crises indicated a possible presence of hypo-function of adrenal glands. After complete withdrawal of corticosteroid therapy, low cortisol levels (69.4nmol/L) and positive tetracosactide stimulation test proved adrenal cortex failure. Regardless of the intensive treatment for diabetes, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and Crohn's disease, it was extremely difficult to achieve and maintain control of all four diseases.
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Article: Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The autoimmune polyglandular syndromes—a group of syndromes comprising a combination of endocrine and nonendocrine autoimmune diseases—differ in their component diseases and in the immunologic features of their pathogenesis. One of the three main syndromes, type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1), has a unique pathogenic mechanism owing to mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, which results in the loss of central tolerance—a process by which developing T cells with potential reactivity for self-antigens are eliminated during early differentiation in the thymus. Patients with IPEX (immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syndrome harbor mutations in the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) gene in regulatory T cells, which leads to severe autoimmunity and immune deficiency. Although both of these disorders are rare, their well-defined mechanisms of disease provide a basis for the understanding of the more common condition, APS-2. In this syndrome, alleles of human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) determine the targeting of specific tissues by autoreactive T cells, which leads to organ-specific autoimmunity as a result of this loss of tolerance. Non-HLA genes also contribute to autoimmunity in APS-2 and, depending on the polymorphism, potentially predispose to a loss of tolerance or influence which organ is specifically targeted. This Review discusses the genetic basis of APS-1, APS-2 and IPEX syndrome, with an emphasis on the mechanisms of autoimmunity and presents currently available therapies to treat their underlying autoimmune disorders.Pediatric Annals 05/1980; 9(4):154-62. · 0.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report a 36-year-old man with Crohn's disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and alopecia universalis. Six years after the onset of intestinal disease, the patient developed severe muscular pain and weakness of the neck. Muscle biopsy revealed myositis. Immunosuppressive treatment led to a significant improvement of muscular symptoms. Myositis in inflammatory bowel disease appears to be an important differential diagnosis in corticoid myopathy. Both alopecia and polymyositis are rarely associated with inflammatory bowel disease; thus, they have to be discussed as extraintestinal manifestations.Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 10/1996; 23(2):121-4. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: No significant differences were reported for the frequency of DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8 haplotypes in a recent study of one of the largest cohorts worldwide of patients with isolated Addison's disease compared to patients with APS II. However, previous studies had suggested that the HLA-DQ genes, especially DQA1*0102, may be a genetic marker for resistance to autoimmune thyroid disease, which is the most frequent disease in APS II or III. Until now, HLA-DQA1 alleles have not been systematically investigated in APS. We determined the HLA-DR and HLA-DQA1 association in 112 unrelated patients with APS II (n = 29), APS III (n = 83) and 184 unrelated patients with single-component diseases without further manifestations of APS: Graves' disease (n = 70), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 53), autoimmune Addison's disease (n = 15), vitiligo (n = 16) and alopecia (n = 30), and 72 healthy controls - German Caucasians - to identify possible predisposing and protective HLA class II alleles in APS. In agreement with previous studies, we detected a significantly higher frequency of DR 3 and/or DR 4 in patients with APS II and III compared to controls. In patients with APS II, we detected a significantly higher frequency of DQA1*0301 and *0501 compared to controls confirming the increased frequency of an extended HLA DRB1-*04-DQA1-*03-DQB-*03 haplotype as previously described. In contrast, only DQA1*0301 was increased in our patients with APS III compared to controls. Moreover, we detected an increased frequency of DQA1*0301 in patients with APS, whereas DQA1*0301 was only significantly elevated in alopecia in patients with single-component diseases without APS. Therefore, our results indicate an association between DQA1*0301 and APS II or III since this allele was otherwise not significantly associated with any of its component diseases except alopecia. Moreover, our data imply that the allele DQA1*0301 is a marker of increased risk for further APS manifestations in patients who suffer from an organ-specific autoimmune disease.Hormone and Metabolic Research 03/2003; 35(2):120-4. · 2.15 Impact Factor