Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2, alopecia universalis and Crohn's disease
ABSTRACT Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are defined as a spectrum of association between 2 or more organ specific endocrinopaties and non-endocrine autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes type 2 is characterized by the coexistence of adrenal failure with autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1. Inflammatory bowel diseases are rarely associated with these autoimmune disorders. Here, we report about a case of 33years old male with known history of Crohn's colitis diagnosed in childhood. In 2003 the patient experienced sudden loss of hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard and body hair - alopecia universalis was diagnosed. At the age of 28, the patient was hospitalized with severe dehydration and clinical signs of ketoacidosis. Increased blood glucose (40mmol/L), ketonuria and metabolic acidosis indicated diabetes mellitus type 1. In 2005, he had severe relapse of Crohn's disease and was treated with systemic corticosteroid. Although patient responded well to the induction therapy, fatigue, hypotension, bradycardia called for further investigations: free thyroxine - 6.99pmol/L, thyroid-stimulating hormone >75U/ml, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies >1000U/mL, so diagnosis of Haschimoto thyroiditis was confirmed. Persistent hypotension and fatigue, recurrent hypoglycemic crises indicated a possible presence of hypo-function of adrenal glands. After complete withdrawal of corticosteroid therapy, low cortisol levels (69.4nmol/L) and positive tetracosactide stimulation test proved adrenal cortex failure. Regardless of the intensive treatment for diabetes, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and Crohn's disease, it was extremely difficult to achieve and maintain control of all four diseases.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Little is known about the prevalence, causes, and management of hair loss in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the fact that there are relatively few case reports describing hair loss in IBD, anecdotally, it is a common clinical problem. Hair loss is associated with both acute and chronic illness, with nutritional deficiencies, and with adverse drug reactions, all of which are relevant to IBD. METHODS:: A literature search was performed using PubMed from 1966 to July 2012 to identify all articles describing cases of and/or the cause of hair loss in patients with IBD. RESULTS:: There is relatively little data describing the prevalence, cause, or course of hair loss in people with IBD. Because there are many potential reasons for hair loss in people with IBD, identifying the cause is not always possible. Telogen effluvium associated with acute or chronic flares of IBD is probably the commonest cause of disease-related hair loss, although the prevalence of this is unknown. Other causes include drug side effects and nutritional deficiencies. More recently shared genetic risk factors with alopecia areata and IBD have been identified. CONCLUSIONS:: The potential causes of hair loss in IBD are protean, although its prevalence is unknown. A practical guide to assessing and managing patients with hair loss in IBD is presented.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 04/2013; 19(8). DOI:10.1097/MIB.0b013e31828132de · 5.48 Impact Factor
- Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 06/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.crohns.2013.05.004 · 3.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recovery from alopecia is rare in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS). A 41-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with hyperglycemia. He developed alopecia areata (AA) 5 months before admission and developed thirst, polyuria, and anorexia in 2 weeks. His plasma glucose level upon admission was 912 mg/dl (50.63 mmol/l) and HbA1c was 13.7%. Although urinary and plasma C-peptide levels showed that insulin secretion was not depleted, anti-insulinoma-associated antigen 2 antibody was present. In addition, measurement of thyroid autoantibodies revealed the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. These findings suggested a diagnosis of APS type 3. The patient has showed signs of improvement with the continuation of insulin therapy. During the successful control of diabetes, he had total hair regrowth within 2-3 months. Human leukocyte antigen typing showed that DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 and DQB1*0301 were present. Similar cases should be accumulated to clarify the association of APS type 3 with recovery from AA. Alopecia in diabetic patients is a suspicious manifestation of autoimmune type 1 diabetes.Patients with autoimmune type 1 diabetes specifically manifesting alopecia should be further examined for diagnosis of APS.Insulin-mediated metabolic improvement may be a factor, but not the sole factor, determining a favorable outcome of alopecia in patients with autoimmune type 1 diabetes.02/2015; 2015:140084. DOI:10.1530/EDM-14-0084