Position and course of the mandibular canal in skulls
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine and describe the topography of the mandibular canal (MC) in both vertical and occlusal dimensions.
Fifty-two adult skulls deposited in the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine skull collection were evaluated in this study. Cone-beam computerized tomographic scans of each skull were obtained.
The vertical course of MC was classified into 3 types: straight projection (12.2%), catenary-like configuration (51.1%), and progressive descent from posterior to anterior (36.7%). The evaluation of the buccolingual dimension showed that the mandibular canal was located either in contact with or close to the lingual cortical plate (≤2 mm) in the molar region of the majority of the cases. As it proceeds anteriorly it moves toward the buccal aspect of the mandible, where it finally emerges through the mental foramen. Three emerging patterns of mandibular canal were observed: sharp turn (53.2%), soft curved exit (28.8%), and straight path (17.4%). The examination of the vertical dimension showed that the canal was located almost 1 cm above the inferior border of the mandible and then ascended to reach the mental foramen, which is located ∼16 mm (range 13.4-20.3 mm) above the inferior border of the mandible. We found a strong correlation between height of the mandible and location of the mental foramen (r = 0.64; P < .0001).
The course of mandibular canal described in vertical and axial dimensions and variation in its path have been classified. In addition to variation in location of MC, it has different anatomic configurations which clinicians should be familiar with in any surgical procedures involving the posterior mandible.
- SourceAvailable from: Phrabhakaran Nambiar
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- "All mandibular canals follow an elliptic-arc curve as described by Liu et al.  or the catenary-like configuration described by Worthington  and Ozturk et al. . The mean distance of the mandibular canal from the inferior border of mandible, as reported here (10.09 ± 3.69 mm), is slightly shorter than the mean of 10.52 mm reported by Kilic et al.  but is similar to the distance of 10 mm described by Gowgiel , Rajchel et al. , and Ozturk et al. . Yu and Wong  have reported a shorter mean inferior distance of 7.6 mm at "
ABSTRACT: This study is aimed at determining anatomical landmarks that can be used to gain access to the inferior alveolar neurovascular (IAN) bundle. Scanned CBCT (i-CAT machine) data of sixty patients and reconstructions performed using the SimPlant dental implant software were reviewed. Outcome variables were the linear distances of the mandibular canal to the inferior border and the buccal cortex of the mandible, measured immediately at the mental foramen (D1) and at 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm (D2-D5) distal to it. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, and gender of subjects. Apicobasal assessment of the canal reveals that it is curving downward towards the inferior mandibular border until 20 mm (D3) distal to the mental foramen where it then curves upwards, making an elliptic-arc curve. The mandibular canal also forms a buccolingually oriented elliptic arc in relation to the buccal cortex. Variations due to age, ethnicity, and gender were evident and this study provides an accurate anatomic zone for gaining surgical access to the IAN bundle. The findings indicate that the buccal cortex-IAN distance was greatest at D3. Therefore, sites between D2 and D5 can be used as favorable landmarks to access the IAN bundle with the least complications to the patient.04/2014; 2014:719243. DOI:10.1155/2014/719243
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe the prenatal formation of the human mandibular canal. Since bony canals develop in prenatal life around the nerve paths, it was assumed that the canal pattern could reflect the pattern of innervation of the dentition. Mapping of this early canal pattern does not appear to have been undertaken before. The material consisted of anthropological mandibles from the National Institute of Anthropology and History, Mexico City. A total of 302 human hemimandibles from the latter half of the prenatal period was investigated. The length, measured from the mental symphysis to the mandibular condyle, ranged from 28 to 60 mm. The dento-alveolar maturity was classified in two stages according to the appearance of alveolar sockets of deciduous and first permanent molars. The mandibles were radiographed with guttapercha points inserted into the canal openings (foramina) on the lingual surfaces of the mandibular rami. The study showed that the canal to the incisors appeared first, followed by the canal to the primary molars, and last by the one or more canals to the first permanent molars. In the most mature group, three different canals always occurred in each hemimandible. The canals were directed from the lingual surface of the mandibular ramus toward the different tooth groups. The inferior alveolar nerve presumably occurs in the mandible as three individual nerve paths originating at different stages of development. It is suggested that rapid prenatal growth and remodeling in the ramus region result in a gradual coalescence of the canal entrances that is obvious at birth. It is hypothesized that the pattern of tooth agenesis within the three groups of teeth is related to the three separate paths of innervation of the dentition.Journal of Dental Research 09/1996; 75(8):1540-4. DOI:10.1177/00220345960750080401 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In some cases, the inferior alveolar nerve runs through a lower course than usual. In such cases, osteotomy of the mandible can injure the inferior alveolar nerves. In other instances, the course of the mandibular osteotomy can meet that of the inferior alveolar nerve. In these cases, a useful method may be excavating the canal and drawing the nerve out through it. With this technique, we can make the osteotomy as initially planned with minimal damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 04/2003; 27(2):126-9. DOI:10.1007/s00266-003-0103-0 · 1.19 Impact Factor