Effects of a regular walking exercise program on behavioral and biochemical aspects in elderly people with type II diabetes
ABSTRACT The present study examined the effects of a regular walking exercise program on behavioral (daily physical activity, physical strength, energy consumption) and biochemical (fasting blood glucose [FBG], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], total cholesterol, triglycerides [TG], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) aspects of elderly people with type II diabetes. A randomized and stratified experimental design was used with experimental and control groups. The experimental group was subjected to a 6 month walking exercise program, involving walking exercise three times per week for 50 min, and a 4 week education program on diet control and the prevention of complications, once per week for 20 min. Post-test was conducted after 3 and 6 months to examine short- and long-term behavioral and biochemical effects. The regular walking exercise program effectively increased daily physical activity, physical strength, and energy consumption (behavioral aspects), and decreased FBG, HbA1c, and TG levels (biochemical aspects) in elderly people with type II diabetes. The incidence of type II diabetes complications might be reduced by implementing a regular walking exercise program.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation and circuit training on body composition, abdominal fat, blood lipids, and insulin resistance in T2D and vitamin D deficient elderly women. Fifty-two elderly women were randomly assigned to either the vitamin D supplementation with circuit training group (D+T: n = 15), the circuit training group (T: n = 13), the vitamin D supplementation group (D: n = 11), or the control group (CON: n = 13). The subjects in D took vitamin D supplements at 1,200 IU per day for 12 weeks; the subjects in T exercised 3 to 4 times per week, 25 to 40 minutes per session for 12 weeks; and the subjects in D+T participated in both treatments. Subjects in CON were asked to maintain normal daily life pattern for the duration of the study. Body composition, abdominal fat, blood lipids, and surrogate indices for insulin resistance were measured at pre- and post-test and the data were compared among the four groups and between two tests by utilizing two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The main results of the present study were as follows: 1) Body weight, fat mass, percent body fat, and BMI decreased significantly in T, whereas there were no significant changes in the variables in D and CON. Lean body mass showed no significant changes in all groups. 2) TFA and SFA decreased significantly in T, whereas there were no significant changes in the variables in D and CON. The other abdominal fat related variables showed no significant changes in all groups. 3) TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C showed improvements in T, whereas there were no significant changes in the variables in D and CON. 4) Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR tended to be lower in D+T. It was concluded that the 12 weeks of vitamin D supplementation and circuit training would have positive effects on abdominal fat and blood lipid profiles in T2D and vitamin D deficient elderly women. Vitamin D supplementation was especially effective when it was complemented with exercise training.09/2014; 18(3):249-57. DOI:10.5717/jenb.2014.18.3.249
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ABSTRACT: Background Participation in regular physical activity is among the most promising and cost effective strategies to reduce physical and cognitive decline and premature death. However, confusion remains about the amount, frequency, and duration of physical activity that is likely to provide maximum benefit as well as the way in which interventions should be delivered. Aims This paper aimed to review research on the impact of leisure-time and general physical activity levels on physical and cognitive decline in postmenopausal women. In a systematic review of the literature, empirical literature from 2009-2013 is reviewed to explore the potential impact of either commencing or sustaining physical activity on older women's health. Results All studies found that physical activity was associated with lower rates of cognitive and physical decline and a significant reduction in all-cause mortality. In this review we found that exercise interventions (or lifestyle activities) that improved cardiorespiratory exercise capacity showed the most positive impact on physical health. Conclusions Findings suggest that programs should facilitate and support women to participate in regular exercise by embedding physical activity programs in public health initiatives, by developing home-based exercise programs that require few resources and by creating interventions that can incorporate physical activity within a healthy lifestyle. The review also suggests that clinicians should consider prescribing exercise in a tailored manner for older women to ensure that it is of a high enough intensity to obtain the positive sustained effects of exercise.Maturitas 09/2014; 79(1). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.06.010 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Walking is the most popular and most preferred exercise among type 2 diabetes patients, yet compelling evidence regarding its beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors is still lacking. The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the association between walking and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109767. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109767 · 3.53 Impact Factor