Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: linking heart failure and arrhythmias.
ABSTRACT Understanding relationships between heart failure and arrhythmias, important causes of suffering and sudden death, remains an unmet goal for biomedical researchers and physicians. Evidence assembled over the past decade supports a view that activation of the multifunctional Ca(2+) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) favors myocardial dysfunction and cell membrane electrical instability. CaMKII activation follows increases in intracellular Ca(2+) or oxidation, upstream signals with the capacity to transition CaMKII into a Ca(2+) and calmodulin-independent constitutively active enzyme. Constitutively active CaMKII appears poised to participate in disease pathways by catalyzing the phosphorylation of classes of protein targets important for excitation-contraction coupling and cell survival, including ion channels and Ca(2+) homeostatic proteins, and transcription factors that drive hypertrophic and inflammatory gene expression. This rich diversity of downstream targets helps to explain the potential for CaMKII to simultaneously affect mechanical and electrical properties of heart muscle cells. Proof-of-concept studies from a growing number of investigators show that CaMKII inhibition is beneficial for improving myocardial performance and for reducing arrhythmias. We review the molecular physiology of CaMKII and discuss CaMKII actions at key cellular targets and results of animal models of myocardial hypertrophy, dysfunction, and arrhythmias that suggest CaMKII inhibition may benefit myocardial function while reducing arrhythmias.
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ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia and has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Current antiarrhythmic drugs for AF suffer from limited safety and efficacy, probably because they were not designed based on specific pathological mechanisms. Recent research has provided important insights into the mechanisms contributing to AF and highlighted several potential novel antiarrhythmic strategies. In this review, we highlight the main pathological mechanisms of AF, discuss traditional and novel aspects of atrial antiarrhythmic drugs in relation to these pathological mechanisms, and present potential novel therapeutic approaches including structure-based modulation of atrial-specific cardiac ion channels, restoring abnormal Ca(2+) handling in AF and targeting atrial remodeling.Future Cardiology 01/2013; 9(1):71-88.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Moyamoya Disease is a rare, devastating cerebrovascular disorder characterized by stenosis/occlusion of supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and development of fragile collateral vessels. Moyamoya Disease is typically diagnosed by angiography after clinical presentation of cerebral hemorrhage or ischemia. Despite unclear etiology, previous reports suggest there may be an immunological component. METHODS: To explore the role of autoimmunity in moyamoya disease, we used high-density protein arrays to profile IgG autoantibodies from the sera of angiographically-diagnosed Moyamoya Disease patients and compared these to healthy controls. Protein array data analysis followed by bioinformatics analysis yielded a number of auto-antibodies which were further validated by ELISA for an independent group of MMD patients (n = 59) and control patients with other cerebrovascular diseases including carotid occlusion, carotid stenosis and arteriovenous malformation. RESULTS: We identified 165 significantly (p < 0.05) elevated autoantibodies in Moyamoya Disease, including those against CAMK2A, CD79A and EFNA3. Pathway analysis associated these autoantibodies with post-translational modification, neurological disease, inflammatory response, and DNA damage repair and maintenance. Using the novel functional interpolating single-nucleotide polymorphisms bioinformatics approach, we identified 6 Moyamoya Disease-associated autoantibodies against APP, GPS1, STRA13, CTNNB1, ROR1 and EDIL3. The expression of these 6 autoantibodies was validated by custom-designed reverse ELISAs for an independent group of Moyamoya Disease patients compared to patients with other cerebrovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first high-throughput analysis of autoantibodies in Moyamoya Disease, the results of which may provide valuable insight into the immune-related pathology of Moyamoya Disease and may potentially advance diagnostic clinical tools.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 03/2013; 8(1):45. · 4.32 Impact Factor