Structural basis of potent and broad HIV-1 fusion inhibitor CP32M
MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 9 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100730, China.Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 06/2012; 287(32):26618-29. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.381079
CP32M is a newly designed peptide fusion inhibitor possessing potent anti-HIV activity, especially against T20-resistant HIV-1 strains. In this study, we show that CP32M can efficiently inhibit a large panel of diverse HIV-1 variants, including subtype B', CRF07_BC, and CRF01_AE recombinants and naturally occurring or induced T20-resistant viruses. To elucidate its mechanism of action, we determined the crystal structure of CP32M complexed with its target sequence. Differing from its parental peptide, CP621-652, the (621)VEWNEMT(627) motif of CP32M folds into two α-helix turns at the N terminus of the pocket-binding domain, forming a novel layer in the six-helix bundle structure. Prominently, the residue Asn-624 of the (621)VEWNEMT(627) motif is engaged in the polar interaction with a hydrophilic ridge that borders the hydrophobic pocket on the N-terminal coiled coil. The original inhibitor design of CP32M provides several intra- and salt bridge/hydrogen bond interactions favoring the stability of the helical conformation of CP32M and its interactions with N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) targets. We identified a novel salt bridge between Arg-557 on the NHR and Glu-648 of CP32M that is critical for the binding of CP32M and resistance against the inhibitor. Therefore, our data present important information for developing novel HIV-1 fusion inhibitors for clinical use.
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ABSTRACT: CP621-652 is a potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitor peptide derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat of gp41. We recently identified that its N-terminal residues Met-626 and Thr-627 adopt a unique hook-like structure (termed M-T hook) thus stabilizing the interaction of the inhibitor with the deep pocket on the N-terminal heptad repeat. In this study, we further demonstrated that the M-T hook structure is a key determinant of CP621-652 in terms of its thermostability and anti-HIV activity. To directly define the structure and function of the M-T hook, we generated the peptide MT-C34 by incorporating Met-626 and Thr-627 into the N terminus of the C-terminal heptad repeat-derived peptide C34. The high resolution crystal structure (1.9 Å) of MT-C34 complexed by an N-terminal heptad repeat-derived peptide reveals that the M-T hook conformation is well preserved at the N-terminal extreme of the inhibitor. Strikingly, addition of two hook residues could dramatically enhance the binding affinity and thermostability of 6-helix bundle core. Compared with C34, MT-C34 exhibited significantly increased activity to inhibit HIV-1 envelope-mediated cell fusion (6.6-fold), virus entry (4.5-fold), and replication (6-fold). Mechanistically, MT-C34 had a 10.5-fold higher increase than C34 in blocking 6-helix bundle formation. We further showed that MT-C34 possessed higher potency against T20 (Enfuvirtide, Fuzeon)-resistant HIV-1 variants. Therefore, this study provides convincing data for our proposed concept that the M-T hook structure is critical for designing HIV-1 fusion inhibitors.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; 287(41):34558-68. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.390393 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters cells through a series of molecular interactions between the HIV envelope protein and cellular receptors, thus providing many opportunities to block infection. Entry inhibitors are currently being used in the clinic, and many more are under development. Unfortunately, as is the case for other classes of antiretroviral drugs that target later steps in the viral life cycle, HIV can become resistant to entry inhibitors. In contrast to inhibitors that block viral enzymes in intracellular compartments, entry inhibitors interfere with the function of the highly variable envelope glycoprotein as it continuously adapts to changing immune pressure and available target cells in the extracellular environment. Consequently, pathways and mechanisms of resistance for entry inhibitors are varied and often involve mutations across the envelope gene. This review provides a broad overview of entry inhibitor resistance mechanisms that inform our understanding of HIV entry and the design of new inhibitors and vaccines.Viruses 12/2012; 4(12):3859-911. DOI:10.3390/v4123859 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The introduction of potent combination therapies in the mid-90s had a tremendous effect on AIDS mortality. However, drug resistance has been a major factor contributing to antiretroviral therapy failure. Currently, there are 26 drugs approved for treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, although some of them are no longer prescribed. Most of the available antiretroviral drugs target HIV genome replication (i.e. reverse transcriptase inhibitors) and viral maturation (i.e. viral protease inhibitors). Other drugs in clinical use include a viral coreceptor antagonist (maraviroc), a fusion inhibitor (enfuvirtide) and two viral integrase inhibitors (raltegravir and elvitegravir). Elvitegravir and the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine have been the most recent additions to the antiretroviral drug armamentarium. An overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in antiretroviral drug resistance and the role of drug resistance-associated mutations was previously presented (Menéndez-Arias, L., 2010. Molecular basis of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance: an update. Antiviral Res. 85, 210-231). This article provides now an updated review that covers currently approved drugs, new experimental agents (e.g. neutralizing antibodies) and selected drugs in preclinical or early clinical development (e.g. experimental integrase inhibitors). Special attention is dedicated to recent research on resistance to reverse transcriptase and integrase inhibitors. In addition, recently discovered interactions between HIV and host proteins and novel strategies to block HIV assembly or viral entry emerge as promising alternatives for the development of effective antiretroviral treatments.Antiviral research 02/2013; 98(1). DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.01.007 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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